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  • Ṣifāt Wuḍūʾ al-Nabī: The Characteristics of the Ablution of the Prophet

Ṣifāt Wuḍūʾ al-Nabī: The Characteristics of the Ablution of the Prophet

  Fahd ibn ʿAbd al Raḥmān al-Shuwayb

A translation of the small treatise concerning ablution by Fahd ibn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Shuʿayb. This treatise covers all the intricate details for the ablution of the Salafī. It also reconciles the differences of opinion that are found in some aspects of this act of worship.

bismallah

  

  I desired to write this as a completion for the treatises which are in circulation amongst the people today - about the different fields - especially of worship such as Prayer and Fasting, etc. - which have made easier that which is difficult as regards religious rulings and being guided thereby, as it maybe difficult these days for some to read, research and extract these rulings from their places within the source books - either because of the ignorance of the Muslims or laziness or other worldly problems.

 

Introduction

Preface

Verily all praise is for Allāh, we praise Him and seek His aid and ask for His forgiveness, and we seek refuge with Allāh from the evils of ourselves and our evil actions. Whomever Allāh guides there is none who can misguide him, and whomever Allāh misguides there is none who can guide him, and I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allāh Alone, having no partner, and I bear witness that Muḥammad is His slave and His Messenger.

O mankind! Reverence your Guardian-Lord, Who created you from a single person, created, of like nature his mate, and from them twain scattered countless men and women; reverence Allāh, through Whom you demand your mutual (rights) and (reverence) the wombs (that bore you): for Allāh ever watches over you.

[Soorah al-Nisāʾ' āyah 1]

O you who believe! Fear Allāh as He should be feared, and die not except in a state of Islām. [Soorah Āl-ʿImrān āyah 102]

O you who believe! Fear Allāh, and (always) say a word did to the right that He may make your conduct whole and sound and forgive you your sins: He that obeys Allāh and His Messenger, has already attained the highest achievement.

[Soorah al-Aḥzāb ayaat 70-71]

As for what follows: Verily the most truthful speech is the Word of Allāh and the best guidance is the guidance of Muḥammad (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam), and the worst of affairs are the novelties and every novelty is an innovation and every innovation is a going astray and every going astray is in the Fire.

I desired to write this as a completion for the treatises which are in circulation amongst the people today - about the different fields - especially of worship such as Prayer and Fasting, etc. - which have made easier that which is difficult as regards religious rulings and being guided thereby, as it maybe difficult these days for some to read, research and extract these rulings from their places within the source books - either because of the ignorance of the Muslims or laziness or other worldly problems. I sincerely advise all the Muslims to read and research until they come to know and understand their true Dīn - and I wished to write this in order to complete the series of the types of worship, especially since no one has particularized this topic in a treatise - except what occurs within the books of reference as we have explained - but I have not found this in the form of a treatise.

My method for this treatise has been not to quote except what is authentic from the ḥadīth of Rasūlullah (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) - if Allāh wishes - ordering it according to the order of the Wudoo of Rasūlullah (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam), and I have commented on some of the points about which there is difference of opinion - stating that which is correct therefrom in our view after replying to the other opinions.

I ask Allāh to guide us to that which is proper - verily He is the One having authority over that and having the Power to do so.

The Definition of Wudoo

Wudoo in the al-ʿArabīc Language:

Wudoo is the action, and wadoo the water used therefore - and it is also a verbal noun; or they are two forms of the same word, both meaning the verbal-noun and maybe both referring also to the water used.

Wudoo in the Sharīʿah:

Wudoo is using clean and cleansing (Tuhoor) water upon certain body parts as Allāh taʿala has prescribed and explained.

The Prescription of Wudoo in The Kitāb And Sunnah:

Allāh taʿala says: O Ye who believe! When ye prepare for prayer, wash your faces, and your hands (and arms) to the elbows; rub your heads (with water); and (wash) your feet to the ankles [Soorah al-Maa'idah, 5:7]

1. Abū Hurayrah (radhiAllāhuʿʿʿanhu) said: Rasūlullah (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said: The Prayer of anyone of you breaching purification is not accepted unless he makes wuḍūʾ. [Al-Bukhārī, (Fath ul-Baaree, 1/206), Muslim (no.225) and others].

2. Ibn ʿUmar (radhiAllāhu ʿʿʿanhumā) said: Indeed I heard Rasūlullah (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) say: Allāh does not accept Prayer without purification, nor Sadaqah from illegally attained wealth. [Muslim (1/160) and others].

3. Ibn ʿAbbās (radhiAllāhu ʿʿʿanhumā) said: Rasolullah (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said: Verily I have been ordered to make wuḍūʾ when I stand for Prayer. [Ṣaḥīḥ. Reported by Abū Dāwūd (no.3760); al-Tirmidhī (no.1848), and he declared it to be 'ḥasan-ṣaḥīḥ': an-Nasaa.ee (1/73). And Shaykh al-Albānī declares it to be 'ṣaḥīḥ' ('Ṣaḥīḥ ul-Jāmiʿ', no.2333)].

4. Abū Saʿīd (radhiAllāhu ʿʿʿanhu) said: Rasūlullah (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said: The key to Prayer is purification, its 'tahreem'[1] is the takbīr and its 'tahleel'[2] is the giving salām. [Reported by Abū Dāwūd (no.60); al-Tirmidhī (no.3); Ibn Mājah (no.275) and others. Declared as 'ṣaḥīḥ' by Shaykh al-Albānī: ('Ṣaḥīḥ ul-Jāmiʿ', no.5761)].

The Excellence of Wudoo

5. Abū Hurayrah (radhiAllāhuʿʿʿanhu) said: Rasūlullah (ṣallallāhuʿalayhi wa-sallam) said: Shall I not guide you to that by which Allāh wipes away the sins and raises the ranks? They said: Certainly O Messenger of Allāh! He said Completing the wuḍūʾ when it is a hardship, and many steps to the mosques and waiting for the [next] Prayer after the Prayer, that is 'ar-Ribaat' (defending the frontiers), that is 'ar-Ribaat' that is 'ar-Ribaat'). [Reported by Muslim (1/151) and others].

6. Abū Hurayrah (radhiAllāhuʿʿʿanhu) reports that Rasūlullah (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said When the Muslim (or 'Believing') servant makes wuḍūʾ and washes his face then the sin of everything he looked at with his eye comes away with the water, or with the last drop of the water, and when he washes his hands then the sin of everything he stretched out his hands to comes away with the water, or with the last drop of the water. And when he washes his feet every sin which his feet walked towards comes away with the water or with the last drop of the water - so that he leaves clean (clear/pure) from sins. [Reported by Muslim (1/148) and others].

7. Abū Hurayrah (radhiAllāhu ʿʿʿanhu) reports that Rasūlullah (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) came to the graveyard and said Peace be upon you, dwelling of Believing People and we will (all) if Allāh wills join you soon. I would have liked to have seen our brothers! They said: Are we not your brothers, O Messenger of Allāh? He said You are my Companions and our brothers are those who have not yet come! They said: How will you know those who have not yet come from your Ummah, O Messenger of Allāh? He said Have you not seen that if a man had a horse with a white blaze and hoof along with a totally jet-black horse, then would he not know his horse? They said: Certainly, O Messenger of Allāh. He said So they will come with white blazes and marks from the wuḍūʾ and I am present before them at the Hand ('water-tank') Indeed men will be driven away from my 'water-tank' as the lost camel is driven away from their gathering place. 'Come on'. So it will be said: 'Indeed they have made changes after you,' so I will say: Be off, be off. [Muslim 249].

8. Abū Umaamah (radhiAllāhuʿʿʿanhu) said: Rasūlullah (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said When a Muslim makes wuḍūʾ the sins he has committed come away from his hearing and from his sight and from his hand and from his feet, so when he sits he sits down having been forgiven. [Reported by Aḥmad (5/252) and is ḥasan].

9. Abū Mālik al-Ashʾarī (radhiAllāhu ʿʿanhu) said: Rasūlullah (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said Purification is half of Imaan. And 'al-hamdu lillāh' fills the Scales. And 'subhaanAllāh' and 'al-hamdu lillāh' fill whatever is between the heaven and the earth. And Prayer is a light. And Sadaqah is a clear proof. And Sabr (patience) is a shining light. And the Qurʾān is a proof for or against you. Every person starts the day dealing for his own soul so he either sets it free or destroys it. [Reported by Muslim (1/140) and others].

10. ʿUthmān (radhiAllāhu ʿʿʿanhu) said: Rasūlullah (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said Whoever makes wuḍūʾ and makes it well, his sins come out from his body, even coming out from under his nails. [Reported by Muslim (3/133) and others].

11. ʿUthmān (radhiAllāhu ʿʿʿanhu) said: Rasūlullah (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said Whoever makes wuḍūʾ like this - then all of his previous sins are forgiven - and his Prayer and his walking to the mosque are above and beyond that. [Reported by Muslim, 3/113].

12. Ibn ʿUmar (radhiAllāhu ʿʿʿanhumā) said: Rasūlullah (ṣallallāhuʿalayhi wa-sallam) said When one of you makes wuḍūʾ and makes it well, then goes out to the mosque - having no purpose except Prayer - then his left foot continues to wipe away his evil deeds and his right foot continually writes for him good deeds until he enters the mosque. And if the people knew what there was in the night prayer and Subh prayers - then they would come to them even if they had to crawl. [Reported by at-Tabraanee in 'al-Mu'jam al-Kabeer'. And Shaykh al-Albānī declares it to be ṣaḥīḥ (As-Ṣaḥīḥah, no.454). And its meaning is reported by al-Bukhārī and Muslim from the narration of Abū Hurayrah].

13. Abū Hurayrah (radhiAllāhuʿʿʿanhu) said: Rasūlullah (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said Whoever makes wuḍūʾ and makes it well then goes out - and then finds that the people have finished the Prayer - then Allāh gives him the same reward as one who had prayed it along with the people without diminishing any of their reward. [Reported by Abū Dāwūd (no.564) and an-Nasaa'ee (no.856) and others. al-Albānī declares it to be 'ṣaḥīḥ' (As-Ṣaḥīḥah, no.6039)].

14. Zayn ibn Khālid al Juhanī (radhiAllāhuʿʿʿanhu) relates that the Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said Whoever makes wuḍūʾ and makes it well, then prays two rakʿahs not letting his mind wander in them - then Allāh forgives him all of his previous sins. [Reported by Abū Dāwūd (no.905) and others. al-Albānī declares it to be 'ḥasan' (As-Ṣaḥīḥah, no.6041)].

15. 'ʿUqbah ibn 'ʿĀmir (radhiAllāhu ʿʿʿanhu) said: Rasūlullah (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said Whoever makes wuḍūʾ and makes it well, then prays two rakʿahs concentrating therein with his heart and his face - then Paradise is obligatory for him. [Reported by an-Nasaa'ee. al-Albānī declares it to be 'ṣaḥīḥ' (As-Ṣaḥīḥah, no.6062)].

16. ʿUthmān (radhiAllāhu ʿʿʿanhu) said: I heard Rasūlullah (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) say Whoever makes wuḍūʾ for Prayer and completes the wuḍūʾ - then walks to the obligatory Prayer and prays it with the people - or with the congregation - or in the mosque - then Allāh forgives his sins. [Reported by Muslim (1/144) and others].

17. ʿAlī (radhiAllāhu ʿʿʿanhu) relates that Rasūlullah (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said Completing the wuḍūʾ when it is a hardship, and walking to the mosque, and waiting for the next prayer after the previous one (greatly) washes away the sins. [Reported by al-Ḥākim (1/132) who declared it to be ṣaḥīḥ to the standard of Muslim. And al-Haithumee said in 'Az-Zawaa-id': It is narrated by Abū Ya'lā and al-Bazzaar. And its narrators are up to the standard of Al-Bukhārī],

18. Humraan ibn Abān relates that ʿUthmān asked for water to make wuḍūʾ - then he mentioned how the Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) made wuḍūʾ . Then he said: The Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said at the end of the ḥadīth Whoever makes wuḍūʾ in the same way that I have just made wuḍūʾ then stands up and prays two rakʿahs, not thinking of other things, then his previous sins are forgiven. [Related by al-Bukhārī (Fath ul-Baaree, 11/213) and Muslim (no.226) and an-Nasaa'ee ( 1/63)] .

The Components of Wudoo

An Niyyah (Intention)

This is the firm resolve of the heart to perform wuḍūʾ in obedience to the order of Allāh taʿala and His Messenger (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam). Ibn Taimiyyah (raḥimahullāh) said (Majmūʿat-ur-Rasaa-il il-Kubraa 1/243): "The place of the niyyah is the heart and not the tongue in all forms of 'ʿibādah - and that is agreed upon by all the Muslim scholars - Purification, Prayer, Zakāt, Sawm, Ḥajj, 'Itq (freeing of slaves), Jihād, etc. If he were to express with his tongue other than that which he intended in his heart - then what he intended is counted, not what he said. If he voiced the intention with his tongue and the intention was not in his heart, that will not count - by total agreement of all the scholars of Islām - so the niyyah is the firm intention and resolve itself."

19. As Rasūlullah (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) himself explained in the ḥadīth narrated by ʿUmar (radhiAllāhu ʿʿʿanhu) in the Ṣaḥiḥain Verily the actions are by intention and there is for everyone only what he intended... [Fath-ul-Baaree, 1/9, and Muslim, 6/48].

At-Tasmiyyah (Mentioning Allāh's Name)

20. Abū Hurayrah (radhiAllāhu' ʿʿanhu) said that Rasūlullah (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said There is no wuḍūʾ for him who does not mention Allāh's name upon it. [Reported by Ibn Mājah (no.399), At-Tirmidhī (no.26), Abū Dāwūd (no.101) and others. Ash-Shaykh al-Albaani says: ḥadīth Ṣaḥīḥ (Ṣaḥīḥ al-Jaarni', no.7444)].

Imam Aḥmad in one of his two sayings is of the opinion that it is obligatory in wuḍūʾ, ghusl, and Tayammum. He was followed in this opinion by Abū Bakr, and it is the saying of al-Ḥasan (al-Basaree) and Imam Ishāq - as reported by Ibn Qudāmah in 'al-Mughnī' (1/84) and their proof is this ḥadīth.

Ibn Qudāmah adds: If we take the saying that it is obligatory, then the wuḍūʾ of one who deliberately leaves it is not correct as he has left an obligatory duty in Purification - just as if he had left the intention; and if he left it forgetfully then his purification is correct. (al-Mughni). And this is the saying that we regard as being correct.

As for Ibn Taimiyyah (rahimahullah) he held it to be obligatory if the related ḥadīth was authentic - as occurs in his Kitāb-ul-Imaan - and the ḥadīth is authentic, so therefore his opinion (rahimahullah) is that it is obligatory.

21. Al-Bukhārī and Muslim report from Anas (radhiAllāhu ʿʿʿanhu) that some of the Companions of the Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) sought water for wuḍūʾ , so Rasūlullah (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said Does any of you have water? So he put his hand into the water and said Make wuḍūʾ in the name of Allāh. And I saw the water coming out from between his fingers until they all made wuḍūʾ. Thābit said: "I said to Anas (radhiAllāhuʿʿʿanhu): How many were there? He said: About seventy. [Al-Bukhārī, 1/236, Muslim, 8/411, An-Nasaa'ee, V8].

As for the proof for that which we have stated - it is his (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) saying Make wuḍūʾ in the name of Allāh. As for those who say that it is only sunnah mu'akkadah then they base that upon the relative ḥadīth being ḍaʿīf ( There is no wuḍūʾ ... ). However since the ḥadīth is ṣaḥīḥ as we have explained, then there remains no proof for them and the proof is with us, and Allāh Knows Best.

So it is therefore obligatory as we have shown; however, the one who forgets should mention Allāh's name when he remembers.

Washing the Hands

22. Humraan (radhiAllāhuʿʿʿanhu) narrates that ʿUthmān called for water to make wuḍūʾ and washed his hands three times... then said: I saw Rasūlullah (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam)make wuḍūʾ just as I have made wuḍūʾ . [Al-Bukhārī and Muslim, and as preceded].

23. Abū Hurayrah (radhiAllāhuʿʿʿanhu) said: Rasūlullah (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said When one of you awakes from sleep then let him not enter his hand into the bowl/vessel until he washes it three times as he does not know where his hand has spent the night. [Al-Bukhārī (Fath ul-Baaree, 1/229), Muslim and it is his wording, as al-Bukhārī doesn't report "three times"].

24. And in the ḥadīth ofʿAbdullāh ibn Zayn (radhiAllāhuʿʿʿanhu) he was asked about the wuḍūʾ of the Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam), so he called for a bowl of water and made wuḍūʾ from it as the Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) made wuḍūʾ, and he poured out water from the bowl upon his hand and washed it three times. [Al-Bukhārī (al Fath, l/255), Muslim, 3/121].

25. Aus ibn Abī Aus reports from his grandfather (radhiAllāhu ʿʿʿanhu) who said: I saw Rasūlullah (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) make wuḍūʾ washing his hands three times. [Aḥmad (4/9), An-Nasaa'ee (1/55) - with ṣaḥīḥ isnād].

Al-Madmadah and Al-Istinshaaq

AL-MADMADAH: Is washing the mouth and moving the water around within it.

AL-ISTINSHAAQ: Is taking water into the nose and breathing it into its backmost part.

AL-ISTINTHAAR: Is expelling the water from the nose after istinshaaq.

Washing the Mouth and Nose Together with One Handful (of Water)

26. ʿAbdullāh ibn Zayn al-Anṣārī said that it was said to him: Perform for us the wuḍūʾ of Rasūlullah (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam), so he called for a pot of water.....until he said: So he washed his mouth and nose with a single handful and did that three times. [Al-Bukhārī and Muslim].

Washing the Mouth

27. In the ḥadīth of 'Amr ibn Yahyá (radhiAllāhu ʿʿʿanhu) he said: And he washed his mouth and nose using three handfuls of water. [Muslim, 3/123].

Al-Imam al-Nawawī says: And in this ḥadīth is a clear proof for the correct opinion that the sunnah in washing the mouth and nose is that it should be with three handfuls of water - washing the mouth and nose [together] with each of them.

28. In the ḥadīth of'Āʿishah (radhiAllāhuʿanhā) in which she describes the wuḍūʾ of the Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) that he said When you make wuḍūʾ then wash your mouth. [al-Bayḥaqi says: 'Its isnād is ṣaḥīḥ.' And it contains an addition to the previous ḥadīth of 'Āʿishah in Abū Dāwūd, no.l43].

Washing the Nose and Expelling the Water

29. Abū Hurayrah (radhiAllāhuʿʿʿanhu) narrates that the Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said When one of you makes wuḍūʾ then let him enter water into his nose, then expel it. [Al-Bukhārī (al-Fath, 1/229), Muslim (no.237), Abū Dāwūd (no. 140)].

30. Exerting in sniffing in the water as long as you are not fasting is reported in the ḥadīth of Laqeet (radhiAllāhu ʿʿʿanhu) who said: O Rasūlullah (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam), inform me of the wuḍūʾ. He said Complete the wuḍūʾ and rub between the fingers and exert in breathing in the water into the nose unless you are fasting. [Abū Dāwūd, no.l42; At-Tirmidhī, no.38; An-nasaa'ee, no.ll4; IbMājah, no.407; and others]. (Declared as ṣaḥīḥ by Ibn Hibbān and al-Haalcim, and al-Dhahabī agreed to that. Also declared as ṣaḥīḥ by Ibn al Qaataan, An-Nawawi and Ibn Hajr. Refer to the footnote in al-Baghawi's Sharḥ us-Sunnah: 1/417].

It is clear from these two ahaadith that washing the mouth and nose are both obligatory (wājib). Ibn Qudāmah says in 'al-Mughnī': Washing the nose and washing the mouth are both obligatory in both forms of purification - Ghusl and wuḍūʾ - as washing the face is obligatory in both of them in the established view of the madh′hab; and it is the saying of Ibn al-Mubārak, Ibn Abī Lailā and Ishāq, and it is reported from 'Ataa.

Taking Water into the Nose with the Right Hand and Expelling it with the Left

'Abd Khair said: We were sitting looking towards ʿAlī - as he made wuḍūʾ - and he entered into his mouth a handful of water with his right hand and washed his mouth and nose, then expelled it from his nose with his left hand - he did that three times, then said: Whoever would like to see the way of purification of Rasūlullah (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) - then this is his purification. [Reported by al-Dārimī. Ash-shaikh al-Albānī says in his notes on al-Mishkāt: Its isnād is ṣaḥīḥ].

Washing the Face

The face (wajh) is determined as being everything between the beginnings of the hair down to the cheeks and the chin, and up to the start of the ears including that which is between the beard and ear.

Allāh taʿala says: O Ye who believe! When ye prepare for prayer, wash your faces, and your hands (and arms) to the elbows; rub your heads (with water); and (wash) your feet to the ankles. [soorat-ul-Maa'idah,5:7]

Humraan ibn Abān narrates that ʿUthmān (radhiAllāhu ʿʿʿanhu) called for water to make wuḍūʾ and so mentioned the way in which the Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) made wuḍūʾ . Humraan said: Then he washed his face three times. [Al-Bukhārī (al-Fath, 1/312), Muslim (no.226)].

Running Water Through the Beard with the Fingers

31. ʿUthmān (radhiAllāhuʿʿʿanhu) narrates that the Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) used to run his (wet fingers) through his beard. [At-Tirmidhī (no.31), Ibn Mājah (no.430), Ibn Jaarood (p.43) and al-Ḥākim (1/14~) who declared its isnād as ṣaḥīḥ as did Ibn Khuzaimah and Ibn Hibbān. See the note in al-Baghagawi's Sharḥ us-Sunnah, 1/421].

32. Anas (radhiAllāhuʿʿʿanhu) narrates that the Prophet (ṣallallāhuʿalayhi wa-sallam), when he made wuḍūʾ , used to take a handful of water and enter it below his chin and rub it through his beard and said This is what my Lord - the Great and Exalted - has ordered me to do. [Abo Dāwūd (no.145), al-Baihaqee (1/54), al-Ḥākim (1/149). Ash-Shaykh al-Albaani declares it to be ṣaḥīḥ (Ṣaḥīḥ ul-Jāmiʿ', no.4572)].

Some of the scholars have declared that entering water through the beard is obligatory and say: If he deliberately leaves it - then he must repeat the ( wuḍūʾ and) prayer. And this is the saying of Imam Ishāq and Abū Thaur.

Most of the scholars however, are of the opinion that the order is an order of desirability (istihbaab) and it is not obligatory - and that it is clearer that that which is obligatory is moving water through that part of the beard.....so that it reaches the skin underneath. [Al-Khaṭṭābee, 1/56].

Imam Aḥmad and Laith and most of the scholars hold that moving water through the beard is obligatory when taking ghusl from Janaabah - and not obligatory in wuḍūʾ . ['Aun al Ma'bood, 1/247].

Washing the Arms Including the Elbows

Note: The arms here which we are ordered to wash begin with the fingertips and hands - which are to be included in this washing - they being part of the arm (yad) which we are ordered to Wash in the āyah.

Allāh taʿala says: O Ye who believe! When ye prepare for prayer, wash your faces, and your hands (and arms) to the elbows; rub your heads (with water); and (wash) your feet to the ankles. [soorat-ul-Maa'idah,5:7]

Humraan ibn Abān reports that ʿUthmān (radhiAllāhuʿʿʿanhu) called for water for wuḍūʾ and mentioned the Prophet's (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) way of making wuḍūʾ - and Humraan said: Then he washed his right arm including the elbow three times, then the left in the same way. [Al-Bukhārī and Muslim as has preceded].

Regarding inclusion of the elbows in the washing of the arms - scholars have differed: Some of them saying that they must be included in this washing, and others saying that this is not so. And this difference of opinion is due to their disagreement over the meaning of the word "ilā" (to) in the āyah - does it mean 'up to/until' or 'up to and including' ?

He who says that it means 'up to' does not include the elbows in the washing - just as Allāh taʿala says: ... thumma 'atimmus-siyaama ilā -llail: Then complete your fast till the night appears; [soorat-ul-Baqara, 2:187]. And this is the opinion of some of the companions of Imam Mālik.

Most scholars, however, hold the view that the meaning is 'up to and including/along with' - and thus include the elbows in the washing and use as their evidence Allāh taʿala's saying: ...wa yayazidkum quwwatan ilā quwwatikum...: ...and add strength to your strength; [Soorat-ul-Hud 11:52]

33. The proof in this matter is the ḥadīth of Nu'aim ibn Mijmar who said: I saw Abū Hurayrah make wuḍūʾ - he washed his face and completed the wuḍūʾ , then washed his right hand until he reached the upper arm, then his left hand till he reached the upper arm" - then in the end of the ḥadīth he said: "This is how I saw Rasūlullah (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) make wuḍūʾ . [Muslim, 1/246]

So, dear reader, it is clear from this ḥadīth that the Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) used to wash the elbows further, he used to increase upon that and wash part of the upper arm.

34. Jābir (radhiAllāhuʿʿʿanhu) said that when the Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa sallarn) made wuḍūʾ , he would pass the water over his elbows. [Reported by al-Dāraqutnī (1/15), al-Baihaqee (1/56) and others - Ibn Hajr declared it to be ḥasan. And Ash-Shaykh al-Albānī declared it to be ṣaḥīḥ (Ṣaḥīḥ ul-Jāmiʿ', 4547)].

Wiping the Head and Ears and 'Imāmah

1. Wiping over all of the head as Allāh taʿala says: ...wamsahoo bi ru'oosikum...: ...rub your heads (with water) [Soorat-ul-Maa'idah 5:7]

Ibn Qudāmah says in 'al-Mughnī': Some of the people who claim that that which is ordered to be wiped is part of the head only - claim that the (Baa) [in the verse] means "part of" as if He had said: "Wipe part of your heads".' However, we say that in His saying wamsahoo bi ru'oosikum the (Baa) is as if He said regarding Tayammum wamsahoo bi wujoohikum [Allāh taʿala orders us to wipe the faces].

Therefore, their saying that the (Baa) means "part of" is incorrect and unknown to the scholars of the language. Ibn Burhān says: 'He who claims that the "baa" means "part of" has declared before the scholars of the language that of which they have no knowledge. [al-Mughnī, 1/112].

Ash-Shaukaanee (rahimahullah) says in Nail-ul-Autaar: It is not established that it means "part of" and Seebawaih (one of the foremost scholars of the al-ʿArabīc language) has denied that in fifteen places in his book.(Nail-ul-Autaar, 1/193).

35. In the ḥadīth ofʿAbdullāh ibn Zayn (radhiAllāhuʿʿʿanhu) is a further proof of the incorrectness of the saying that it means "a part of" - in that the Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) wiped his head with his two hands, moving them forwards and backwards - beginning with the front of the head and (wiping) with them up to his nape then he (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) returned them to the place from which he began. [Al-Bukhārī (al-Fath, 1/251), Muslim (no.235), al-Tirmidhī (no.28) and others].

2. Wiping the ears: The ruling for the ears is the same as that for the head.

36. And it is authentically reported that Rasūlullah (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said The two ears are a part of the head. [Reported by al-Tirmidhī, no.37; Abū Dāwūd, no.l34 and Ibn Mājah, no.444]. (Declared by ash-Shaykh al-Albānī to be ṣaḥīḥ - al-Ṣaḥihah, 1/36 - and Imam Aḥmad was of the view that wiping the ears has the same ruling as that for wiping the head.)]

As for those who hold the view that it is a sunnah they do not have any evidence except their regarding this ḥadīth as being ḍaʿīf - it is however authentic due to a chain of narration which they did not come across and so the proof is with our saying - and Allāh Knows best.

And of the scholars who hold that they are part of the head are Ibn al-Mūsáyyib, 'Ataa, al-Ḥasan, Ibn Sīrīn, Saʿīd ibn Jubair and an-Nakha'ee and it is the saying of ath-Thauree and Ahl ur-Ra'y and Imāms Malik and Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal.

Taking Fresh Water for the Head and Ears

37. Ash-Shaykh al-Albānī says in 'al-Ḍaʿīfah', no.995: There is not to be found in the Sunnah anything which obligates taking fresh water for the ears - therefore he should wipe them along with the water for the head - just as it is also permissible to wipe the head with the water remaining from that of the arms after washing them according to the ḥadīth of Ar-Rabīʿ ibnt Mu'awwidh that the Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) "wiped his head with water remaining in his hand". [Reported by Abū Dāwūd and others with ḥasan isnād].

The Way of Wiping

38. From ʿAbdullāh ibn 'Amr - about the way of performing wuḍūʾ - he said: Then he (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) wiped his head and entered his two forefingers into his ears and wiped the backs of his ears with his thumbs. [Reported by Abū Dāwūd (no.135), an-Nasaa'ee (no.140), Ibn Mājah (no.422) and authenticated by Ibn Khuzairnah].

Wiping Over the 'Imāmah (Turban) Only

39. 'Amr ibn Umayyah (radhiAllāhu ʿʿʿanhu) said: I saw Rasūlullah (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) wipe over his turban and leather socks. [Reported by al-Bukhārī (al Fath, 1/266) and others].

40. Bilāl (radhiAllāhu ʿʿʿanhu) reports that the Prophet (ṣallallāhuʿalayhi wa-sallam) wiped over the leather socks and the head cover. [Reported by Muslim, 1/159].

Wiping Over the Turban and Forelock

41. Al-Mughīrah ibn Shu'bah (radhiAllāhuʿʿʿanhu) reports that the Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) made wuḍūʾ and wiped over his forelock and over the turban and leather socks. [Reported by Muslim, 1/159].

Ibn Qudāmah says in 'al-Mughnī' (1/310); And if part of the head is uncovered and it is normally so, then it is preferable to wipe over that along with the turban - that is recorded from Aḥmad: as the Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) wiped over his turban and forelock - as occurs in the ḥadīth of al-Mughīrah ibn Shu'bah.

As for caps/'prayer hats', it is not permissible to wipe over them as Aḥmad says for various reasons, from them: (1) They do not cover all of the head normally, nor are they tied around it. (2) There is no difficulty in their removal.

As for the woman's head cover - it is permissible to wipe over it as Umm Salamah used to wipe over her head cover - as reported by Ibn al-Mundhir. (See'al-Mughnī', 1/312).

Washing the Feet and Ankles

Allāh taʿala says: ...wa arjulakum ilāl ka'bayn...: ...and (wash) your feet to the ankles [Soorat-ul-Maa'idah 5:7] [thus ordering the washing of the feet and ankles].

42. Ibn ʿUmar (radhiAllāhu ʿʿʿanhumā) said: Rasūlullah (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) fell behind us and then came upon us during a journey, then we found him and it was time for 'ʿAṣr - so we began to make wuḍūʾ and wipe over our feet, so he (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) called out at the top of his voice Woe to the ankles from the Fire. (two or three times) [Al-Bukhārī (al Fath, 1/232) and Muslim, 3/128].

An-Nawawi says in his explanation of Ṣaḥiḥ Muslim after mentioning the ḥadīth: Muslim's intention (rahimahullah) in quoting these ḥadīth was to prove with it the obligation of washing the feet - and that wiping them is not sufficient.

43. In the ḥadīth of al-Bukhārī and Muslim from Humraan ibn Abān that ʿUthmān (radhiAllāhuʿʿʿanhu) called for water for wuḍūʾ and then mentioned the wuḍūʾ of the Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) - then Humraan said: Then he washed his right foot to the ankle three times and then his left foot to the ankle three times.

44. As Abū Hurayrah (radhiAllāhu ʿʿʿanhu) did in Muslim's narration: "Then he washed his right foot till he reached the shin, then he washed the left foot till he reached the shin" and in the end of the ḥadīth said: This is what I saw Rasūlullah (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) do. [Muslim, 1/246].

From this ḥadīth - O Brother Muslim - it becomes clear that the ankles enter into this washing as is clear from his saying 'till he reached the shin'.

45. Al-Mustaurad (radhiAllāhu ʿʿʿanhu) said: When the Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) made wuḍūʾ he would enter the water between his toes with his little finger. [Reported by Abū Dāwūd (no.148), at-Tinnidhee (no.40) and Ibn Mājah (no.446). Declared as 'ṣaḥīḥ' by al-Albānī].

As-San'aanee says in 'Subul-us-Salām' after quoting this ḥadīth: It is a proof for the obligation of wiping between the toes - and this also occurs in the ḥadīth of Ibn ʿAbbās which we have indicated - which is reported by al-Tirmidhī, Aḥmad, Ibn Mājah and al-Ḥākim - and authenticated by al-Bukhārī. And it is done by using the little finger. (See 'Subul-us-Salām', 1/48).

46. And Laqeet ibn Sabarah said: Rasūlullah (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa salām) said Complete the wuḍūʾ and wipe between the Asaabi' (fingers and/or toes). [Abū Dāwūd (no.142), al-Tirmidhī (no.37), an-Nasaa'ee (no.114), Ibn Mājah (no.407), al-Hakim (1/148). al-Albānī says: Ṣaḥīḥ.]. As-San'aanee says: It clearly means both the fingers and toes and is shown clearly in the ḥadīth of Ibn ʿAbbās. [Subul-us-Salām, 1/47].

The Reply to Those who Follow Wiping of the Feet Without Washing

(1) Wiping the feet when not wearing anything on the foot is not established from the Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam). As for their using as a proof the reading of the Aāyah: wamsahoo bi ru'oosikum wa arjulakum ilāl ka'bayn: rub your heads and your feet to the ankles...[soorat-ul-Maaidah 5:7] reading (arjulikum) - and saying that the feet are thus connected to (the command to wipe) the heads - and this is not correct, rather they are connected to (the order to wash) the hands. As for the reading of the word (arjulikum) with Kʿasra of the lām - as-San'aanee says That is for wiping over the leather socks - as is shown by the Sunnah - and this is the best interpretation for this particular recital. (As-Subul, 1/58).

(2) The Qurʾān is not to be explained according to the human intellect - especially in the matters of worship such as Ṣalāt and wuḍūʾ , etc. - but by the Sunnah which explains this Pillar. And there are many such examples in the Qurʾān which the Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) explained by his sayings - and from this is the washing of the feet - and its proof from the Sunnah has preceded.

(3) If they wish to use the intellect then we say to them: The bottom of the foot has more right to be wiped than the surface (their saying being the wiping of the surface), and if they say: Then what about the socks? we say: That is established from the Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) just as washing the foot is also established in the Sunnah.

(4) Leaving out one of two verbs and sufficing with one of them, as the Arabs, when two verbs come together having similar meaning and are followed by things related to them, makes it permissible to mention only one of the two verbs and attaching those things relating to the second to those relating to the first which is mentioned - according to what the wording demands, until it is as if the two are partners with regard to the verb, as the poet said: I fed it with hay and cold water. And what is meant is: I fed it with hay and gave it cold water to drink.

(5) The saying of az-Zajjaj (a great scholar of the language): It is permissible that the wording (arjulikum) has the meaning of 'wash the feet' as the wording (ilal Ka'bain) conveys that meaning - as the mentioning of a limit suggests washing just as Allāh taʿala says ilāl maraafiq [that is the limit of the elbows is for washing] however, if wiping were intended then there would be no need for mention of a limit just as Allāh taʿala says wamsahoo bi ru'oosikum not mentioning any limit (for wiping the head) and further the term wiping can be used to mean washing. (Al-Mirqaat, 1/400).

(6) And further, the great majority of scholars have agreed that it is obligatory to wash the feet and that is reported - and reaches the level of mutawātir from the Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) as al-Ḥāfiẓ Ibn Hajr says; and further it is not established that any of the Ṣaḥābah differed regarding that - except what is reported from ʿAlī, Ibn 'ʿAbbās and Anas (radhiAllāhu ʿʿʿanhum) - and it is established that they went back on that. (Al-Mirqaat. 1/400~.

47. And Abū Hurayrah (radhiAllāhu ʿʿʿanhu) reports that Rasūlullah (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) came to the graveyard and said ...they will come on the Day of Judgement with their blazes shining from the wuḍūʾ (It has preceded, no.7). Meaning the Rasūlullah (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) will know from the traces of the washing, as for those who do not wash then he will not know them on the Day of Judgement.

Ibn Hajr says: And it is established that this shining of the faces, hands and feet are particular to the Muslim Ummah.

Other Aspects of Wudoo

The Siwaak

The SIWAAK is that which the mouth is brushed with. And it is also called the MISWAAK, the plural being: SOOK. And the siwaak comes from the Araak tree and it is a well-known tree. Abū Hanifah said: It is the best of the trees whose twigs are used for brushing the teeth... smelling of milk. Abū Ziyād said: From it is taken there tooth-sticks - from its twigs and roots - and the best part for that is its roots, and it is broadly spreading....And Ibn Shameel: The Araak is a tall fine-shoot green tree with many leaves and branches, having weak wood and growing in hollows - miswaaks are taken from it, being one of the citrus trees. Its singular is Araak and its plural Araa-ik. (Lisaan-ul-'Arab, 268).

It is mustahabb (desirable) to use the siwaak at many different times as is established from the Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) that he used to use the siwaak at every Prayer, and before reading the Qurʾān, and before sleeping and when waking, and when the breath changes - whether fasting or not - or whether at the start of the day or in the afternoon, and it is a form of worship which is easy therefore observe it, O my Muslim Brother.

48. And also when making wuḍūʾ , as Abū Hurayrah (radhiAllāhu ʿʿʿanhu) narrates that Rasūlullah (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said If I did not fear to cause hardship to my Ummah I would have ordered them to use the siwaak with every wuḍūʾ. [Reported by at-Tirrnidhee (no.22) who said: Ḥasan Ṣaḥīḥ, and Mālik (no.123), Aḥmad (4/116), Abū Dāwūd (no.37) and others. al-Albānī declared it to be ṣaḥīḥ (Takhree; ul Mishkaat, no.390)].

49. And 'Āʿishah (radhiAllāhu' anhaa) narrates that Rasūlullah (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said The siwaak is a means of cleansing the mouth and pleasing the Lord. [Al-Bukhārī reports it in mu'allaq form - connected by Aḥmad, an-Nasaa'ee, Ibn Khuzaimah and Ibn Hibbān].

Ad-Dalk (Rubibng the Water over the Body Parts):

This is part of the wuḍūʾ authentically reported from the Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam). Al-Mustawrid ibn Shadad said: I saw Rasūlullah (sailAllāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) when he made wuḍūʾ rubibng his toes with his little finger. [Ṣaḥīḥ as has preceded].

50. ʿAbdullāh ibn Zayn (radhiAllāhu ʿʿʿanhu) narrates that the Prophet (ṣallallāhuʿalayhiwa-sallam) made wuḍūʾ and said Rub in this way. [See Nail-ul-Autaar, 4/39].

51. He (radhiAllāhuʿʿʿanhu) also narrates that the Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) made wuḍūʾ with two thirds of a mudd[3] (of water) and rubbed over his forearms. [Ibn Khuzaimah (no.118), and its isnād is Ṣaḥīḥ - and al-Ḥākim (1/161) reports it by way of Yahyá ibn Abī Zaa'idah].

Performing the Wudoo in the Order Mentioned in the Āyāh

As for what is narrated regarding the 'order' as mentioned in the Aāyah, then there is nothing to contraḍīct that - and this order is obligatory (wājib) and it is said: Sunnah. [See Fiqh al Imam Saʿīd ibn al Mūsáyyib, 1/64].

As for what is related with regard to the Prophet's wuḍūʾ (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) then it has been reported sometimes out of the regular order. And the proof is:

52. Al-Miqdaam ibn Ma'd Yakrib said: I came to the Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) with water for wuḍūʾ , so he washed his hands three times, then washed his face three times, then washed his forearms three times, then washed his mouth and nose three times, then wiped his head and ears - their outsides and insides - and washed each of his feet three times. [Aḥmad (4/132), Abū Dāwūd (1/19) with Ṣaḥīḥ isnād. Ash-Shaukaanee (1/1~5) said: Its isnād is good, and it is reported by ad-Diyaa in 'al-Mukhtaarah'. And al-Albānī records it in 'al-Ṣaḥihah', no.261] .

So this is a proof that he (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) did not always stick to the regular order - and this is a proof that it is not obligatory - however, his sticking to it mostly shows that it is Sunnah. And Allāh Knows best.

As-Suyooti says as is reported from him in 'Aun al Ma'bood' ( 1/48): It is used as a proof - that is the aforementioned ḥadīth - by him who says that sticking to the regular order in wuḍūʾ is not obligatory as he washed his mouth and nose after washing his arms.

The author of 'Aun al Ma'bood' says: This narration is 'shaadh'[4] - and therefore not to be taken in contraḍīction to the established narrations which put the washing of the mouth and nose before the washing of the face.

I say: The difference of opinion between the scholars here is with regard to those parts of wuḍūʾ which are Sunnah. As for the obligatory duties - then they are according to the order mentioned in the noble Aāyah, and the best thing is to perform all of the actions in the way mentioned in the majority of the aḥādīth - and Allāh Knows best.

Al-Mawaʿalát (Washing Each Part Directly After the Previous one - Leaving no Time Gap in Between)

Nothing other than this is established from the Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam). It is however established that Ibn ʿUmar (radhiAllāhu' ʿʿanhu) urinated within the market, then made wuḍūʾ and so washed his face and hands and wiped his head, then he was called to pray over a Janazzah so he entered the mosque then wiped over his leather socks, then prayed over it. [Reported by Mālik (no.72) and al-Baihaqee (1/84). And 'Ataa didn't see anything wrong with leaving such gaps whilst making wuḍūʾ and it is the saying of al-Ḥasan, an-Nakha'ee and the better reported of the two sayings of al-Shāfiʿī].

Beginning with the Right

That is washing the right hand before the left - and likewise the feet.

53. 'Aaishah (radhiAllāhu 'annaa) said: Rasūlullah (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) used to like to begin with the right in putting on shoes, comibng his hair, in purification and in all of his affairs. [Al-Bukhārī (al Fath) 1/235, Muslim (no.267) and others].

54. Abū Hurayrah (radhiAllāhuʿʿʿanhu) narrates that the Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said When you dress and when you make wuḍūʾ , then begin with the right. [Abū Dāwūd (4141), al-Tirmidhī (1766), an-Nasaa'ee (402). al-Albānī declares it to be ṣaḥīḥ].

Economizing in the Use of Water and not Being Wasteful

55. Anas (radhiAllāhu ʿʿʿanhu) said: The Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) used to make wuḍūʾ with a mudd (of water) and make ghusl with a saa' or up to five mudds. [Muslim (1/156) and others]. A saa' is equal to four mudds. ( A mudd is that amount of water which is held by the two hands cupped together.)

If you consider this ḥadīth well, O my Muslim Brother, you would feel ashamed of what some people do these days - one of them opening the water tap and making wuḍūʾ and sometimes talking to his companion whilst the water is running out - what an excess in wastefulness! So he who does that should fear Allāh and remember this ḥadīth and keep it in mind and follow the Sunnah with regard to using the water sparingly and not being wasteful - and here the true following of the Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) is made clear and the true Muslim's belief. It is from the Sunnah for the Muslim who wishes to make wuḍūʾ to have with him a container large enough for a mudd of water - in order to force himself to return to the following of the Sunnah.

The Du'aa After the Wudoo

56. ʿUmar ibn al-Khaṭṭāb (radhiAllāhu ʿʿʿanhu) said: Rasūlullah (ṣallallāhu 'alahi wa-sallam) said None of you makes wuḍūʾ and completes the wuḍūʾ then says: Ashhadu anlā ilāha illā-Allāhu wahdahu lā shareekalahu washhadu anna Muḥammadan 'abduhu wa rasooluhu (I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allāh, and that Muḥammad is His slave andMessenger) except that all eight Gates of Paradise are opened for him - so that he enters by whichever he pleases. [Reported by Muslim (no.234), Abū Dāwūd (no 169), al-Tirmidhī (no.55), an-Nasaa'ee (no.148), Ibn Mājah (no.470)].

And al-Tirmidhī adds an authentic addition to it: Allāhumma aj'alnee minat-tawwabeen waj'alnee minal mutatahhireen (O Allāh, make me one of those who constantly repents toYou and of those who purify themselves.) [Declared as Ṣaḥiḥ by al-Albānī].

57. Abū Saʿīd al-Khudrī (radhiAllāhu ʿʿʿanhu) said Rasūlullah (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam)said Whoever makes wuḍūʾ then says upon finishing the wuḍūʾ: SubhaanakAllāhumma wa bihamdika ashhadu anlā ilāha illa anta astaghfiruka wa atoobu ilaika (I declare You free from all defects my Lord and all praise belongs to you and I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship except You. I seek Your forgiveness and I turn to You) It is written in a parchment, then sealed and is not opened till Judgement Day. [Reported by Ibn ar-Sunnee in 'Amal al Yaurn wal-l~ilah, no.30. Declared as Ṣaḥīḥ by al-Albānī].

Washing Each Body-Part Once

68. Ibn ʿAbbās (radhiAllāhu ʿʿʿanhu) said: Rasūlullah (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) made wuḍūʾ (washing each part) once. [Al-Bukhārī (al Fath) 1/226].

Washing Each Body-Part Twice

59. ʿAbdullāh ibn Zayn narrates that the Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) made wuḍūʾ (washing each part) twice. [Al-Bukhārī (al Fath) 1/226].

Washing Each Body-Part Twice

60. In the ḥadīth ofʿUthmān (radhiAllāhu ʿʿʿanhu) recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim, he (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) washed each of the parts three times.

So from these aḥādīth it becomes clear to us that, as is well-known to the large majority of scholars, washing each body-part once is obligatory - and the second and third washings are Sunnah - and it is better to do likewise following the Sunnah of the Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) ['al-Majmūʿ of al-Nawawī, 1/229].

The Desirability of Making Wudoo for Each Prayer

Al-Ḥāfiẓ says in 'al Fath' (1/172) in the question 'Making wuḍūʾ without having broken it':

61. Anas (radhiAllāhu ʿʿʿanhu) says: The Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) used to make wuḍūʾ for every prayer. I said: What had you (the Ṣaḥābah) used to do? He said: One wuḍūʾ was sufficient for us till such time as we broke it.

This ḥadīth is an evidence that what is meant generally is the obligatory Prayer.

Al-Tahaawee says: It may be that that was obligatory upon him (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) particularly - then was abrogated on the Day of Fath by the ḥadīth of Buraydah - meaning that which Muslim reports - that he (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) prayed all the Prayers on the Day of Fath with one wuḍūʾ and that ʿUmar (radhiAllāhu ʿʿʿanhu) asked him about that so he (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said I did it deliberately. Or it may be that he (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) used to do it out of desirability only, then feared that it might be thought to be obligatory and so left it to show the permissibility of that.

I say: The result is that making wuḍūʾ for every Prayer is mustahabb and praying all of the Prayers with one wuḍūʾ is permissible - and Allāh Knows best.

The One who is not Sure if he has Broken the Wudoo or not Relies upon that which he is Certain of

If he who knows that he has made wuḍūʾ then is not sure that he has broken it - then his wuḍūʾ remains. And he who knows that he has done that which breaks wuḍūʾ and doubts when he has made wuḍūʾ thereafter then he does not have wuḍūʾ . In each case he relies upon that which he is certain of before that which he has doubt about - and he throws the doubt away. And this is the saying of the great majority of scholars - and it is the saying of Abū Hanifah, al-Shāfiʿī and Aḥmad. ['al-Mughni', 1/193, and ~iqh ul Awaaa'ee, 1/56].

62. And the proof for this is what is established from Abū Hurayrah (radhiAllāhu ʿʿʿanhu) who said: Rasūlullah (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said If one of you feels something in his stomach and he isn't sure did anything (wind) come out of it or not - then let him not leave the mosque until he hears a sound or finds a smell. [Muslim (Sharḥ al-Nawawī, 4/51), 'Aaridat-ul-Aḥwadhī Sharḥ ut-Tirmidhī, 1/79].

So the ḥadīth is a proof that things remain upon their original state until there is a certainty of a change in that, and doubt does not harm that - so he who is sure of having made wuḍūʾ and thinks that he may have broken it, then he remains upon wuḍūʾ .

A Man and Woman's Washing from a Single Vessel

63. Ibn ʿAbbās (radhiAllāhu ʿʿʿanhumā) narrates that one of the wives of the Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) took a ghusl from Janaabah then saw Rasūlullah (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) about to take a ghusl from the water remaining - so she informed him that she had made ghusl therefrom - so Rasūlulah said Nothing makes the water impure. [Reported by Abū Dāwūd (no.67), and an-Nasaa'ee (no.326), and al-Tirmidhī who declared it to be ḥasan ṣaḥīḥ, and Ibn Mājah (no.370)].

Ibn 'Abd ul-Barr says: There is nothing in the Sharīʿah to prevent each of them washing with the water remaining from the other - either together or one after the other, and this is the saying of the scholars of the different lands and the great majority of scholars - and the aḥādīth about it are Mutawaatir. (Al-Istidhkaar, 1/373).

Making Wudoo after Eating Camel Meat

64. Jābir ibn Samurah (radhiAllāhu ʿʿʿanhu) narrates that a man asked Rasūlullah (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam): Should I make wuḍūʾ because of the meat of sheep? He (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said If you wish make wuḍūʾ and if you wish then do not make wuḍūʾ. He said: Should I make wuḍūʾ from the meat of the camel? He (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said Yes, make wuḍūʾ from the meat of the camel. He asked: May I pray in sheep-pens? He (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said Yes. He asked: May I pray in the stalls of camels? He (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said No. [Reported by Muslim, 1/189].

Drying the Body Parts after Purification

'ʿUthmān ibn 'Affaan, al- Ḥasan ibn ʿAlī, Anas ibn Mālik, al-Ḥasan al-Baṣrī, Ibn Sīrīn, 'Alqamah, al-Aswad, Mʿasrooq, ad-Dahhaak, ʿAbdullāh ibn al Haarith, Abū Ya'lā, Abū al Ahwas, Ash-Sha'bee, al-Thawrī, Ishāq, Ibn ʿUmar in a narration, and Abū Hanifah, Mālik, Aḥmad, and the Shāfiʿīe Madhhab in one saying, all say that it is permissible after both wuḍūʾ and ghusl to dry the body-parts. And their evidence is what 'Āʿishah (radhiAllāhu ʿanhā) reports - she said: Rasūlullah (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) had a cloth which he used to dry himself with after making wuḍūʾ . [Reported by al-Tirmidhī who declared it to be ḍaʿīf]. Then al Ainee states that an-Nasaa'ee records it in 'al-Kunaa' with ṣaḥīḥ isnād.

I say: And it has other narrations which support and strengthen it. (See Fiqh al-Imam Saʿīd, 1/70). al-Albānī declares the ḥadīth to be ḥasan. (Ṣaḥīḥ ul Jāmiʿ', 4706).

65. Salmān al-Faarsee narrates that the Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) made wuḍūʾ , then turned up a woollen cloak he had and wiped his face ith it. [Reported by Ibn Mājah (no.468)]. In al-Zawāʾid it is said: Its isnād is ṣaḥīḥ.

I say: In its isnād is al-Wadīn ibn 'Ataa who is sadooq but has a bad memory as al-Ḥāfiẓ Ibn Hajr says in 'Taqreeb ut-Tahdheeb', so its isnād is ḍaʿīf!! - but it is strengthened by the previous ḥadīth of 'Āʿishah to the level of ḥasan - and Allāh Knows best.

Some others hold it to be makrooh to dry the body-parts after Purification and their proof is:

66. What is established from Maimoonah (radhiAllāhuʿanhā) who described the Prophet's (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) ghusl from Janaabah and said: Then I brought him a cloth but he refused it. [Al-Bukhārī, and Muslim - and the word is his].

The Final word: Is that drying the body-parts is one of the desirable actions as shown by the ḥadīth of Āʿishah (radhiAllāhu ʿanhā) - as for the saying that it is makrooh then that is not acceptable as the saying of Maimoonah (radhiAllāhu ʿanhā) "but he refused it" does not amount to the fact that it is makrooh - and Allāh Knows best.

Those Things which Break Wudoo

(1) That Which Comes Out from the Two Private Parts (Front And Back).

Abū Hurayrah (radhiAllāhu ʿʿʿanhu) said: Rasūlullah (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said Allāh does not accept the prayer of any one of you having committed hadath until he makes wuḍūʾ. [Al-Bukhārī (al Fath, 1/206) and Muslim (no.245)].

67. An-Nawawi says in 'al-Majmūʿ (2/3) as for that which comes out of the two private parts - then it breaks wuḍūʾ according to Allāh taʿalas saying: Aw jaa'a ahadukum min al ghaa'it...: or one of you comes from offices of nature...[Soorat-ul-Maa'idah 5:7] along with his (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) saying There is no wuḍūʾ except from a sound or a smell. [Ṣaḥīḥ and has preceded (Ṣaḥīḥ ul Jaarni' (7443)].

He adds: So that which comes out of the front or back part of a man or woman breaks the wuḍūʾ - whether excretion or urine or wind - or a worm or pus or blood or stones or anything else and there is no difference in that for something which happens normally or rarely.

(2) Sound Sleep[5]

68. ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib (radhiAllāhu ʿʿʿanhu) said: Rasūlullah (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said The eye is the drawstring for the anus, so he who sleeps then let him make wuḍūʾ. [Abū Dāwūd (no.203), Ibn Mājah (no.477), Aḥmad. Declared as Ṣaḥīḥ by al-Albānī].

In the ḥadīth is an evidence that sleep does not in itself something that breaks wuḍūʾ , however the Purification is broken if it is possible for something to come out from the anus - however if that is restricted, e.g. by sitting flat on the earth, then that is not the case.

(3) Becoming Unconscious - Other than Sleep

That is the 'intellect' going away by any means because of insanity or fainting or intoxication - as in this condition he does not know whether his wuḍūʾ is broken or not. This is the saying of the great majority of scholars. (Sharḥ Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim (4/74) and al-Mughnī (1/164)).

(4) Touching the Uncovered Private Parts

69. Abū Hurayrah (radhiAllāhu ʿʿʿanhu) said: Rasūlullah (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said If one of you touches his penis and there is no veil between him and it nor any cover, then wuḍūʾ has become obligatory for him. [al-Ḥākim (1/138) and others]. (al-Albānī says: ḥadīth Ṣaḥīḥ.)

(5) Touching the Penis

70. Busrah (radhiAllāhu ʿanhā) said: Rasūlullah (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said If one of you touches his penis then let him make wuḍūʾ. [At-Tirmidhī (1/18) who said it is ḥasan ṣaḥīḥ. And also declared as Ṣaḥīḥ by Aḥmad, al-Bukhārī and Ibn Maʿīn (Lum'aat ut-Tanqeeh Sharḥ Mishkaat ul Masaabeeh, no.319). Others also narrate it as authentic].

71. Talq ibn ʿAlī (radhiAllāhuʿʿʿanhu) said: Rasūlullah (ṣallallāhuʿalayhi wa-sallam) was asked about a man's touching his penis. Should he make wuḍūʾ ? He (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said And is it except a part of him? [At-Tirmidhī (no.85) and he said: And this is the best of what is reported in this regard]. al-Albānī says: Its isnād is Ṣaḥīḥ, and this (the view that it doesn't break the wuḍūʾ) is established as being that of a group of the Ṣaḥābah, from them: Ibn Masʿūd, 'Ammaar ibn Yaasir, and because of these Imam Aḥmad gave the choice between this and the one before it. Shaykh-ul-Islām Ibn Taimiyyah harmonized the two carrying the first to mean if he touched it with desire and this upon the touching without desire - and there is in this ḥadīth that which gives that impression and it is his (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) saying 'a part of him'. [Al-Mishkaat al Masaabeeh, notes on nos.3 19 and 320].

(6) Touching a Woman with Desire:

72. A man's touching a woman without desire does not break the wuḍūʾ . 'Āʿishah (radhiAllāhu ʿanhā) says: Rasūlullah (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) prayed and I was lying in front of him as in front of a Janaazah, so when he wished to prostrate I pulled up my leg. [Al-Bukhārī and Muslim].

73. And in the same way a woman's touching a man without desire does not break wuḍūʾ as is established from 'Āʿishah (radhiAllāhu ʿanhā): I didn't find the Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) one night so I tried to find him with my hand - and my hand fell upon his feet which were raised up as he was making prostration. [Muslim (3/203) and an-Nasaa'ee (l/101)].

So we see from these two ḥadīth that merely touching does not break the wuḍūʾ- and Allāh Knows best.

The author of'al-Taʿlīqaat us-Salafīyyah' upon Sunan of an-Nasaa'ee (1/23) says concerning "he pushed me with his foot": It is well-known that that is a touching without desire. And so the author uses it as a proof that touching without desire does not break the wuḍūʾ . As for the touching with desire - its proof is that the wuḍūʾ is not broken until a proof is established that it does indeed break it - and this is enough of a proof to show that it doesn't break the wuḍūʾ for the one who holds that view - and above and beyond that is a further proof that it doesn't break the wuḍūʾ is the ḥadīth of kissing - as normally kissing is not free from touching with desire.

The author of 'Aun al Ma'bood' (1/69) says regarding her saying "he kissed me and did not make wuḍūʾ"' - It contains a proof that touching a woman does not break the wuḍūʾ as kissing is part of touching and the Prophet (ṣallallāhuʿalayhi wa-sallam) did not make wuḍūʾ (before praying). And this (that touching a woman even with desire doesn't break the wuḍūʾ ) is the saying of ʿAlī and Ibn ʿAbbās and 'Ataa ibn Ṭāwūs, and Abū Hanifah and Sufyān al-Thawrī. And this ḥadīth is (in itself) ḍaʿīf but is supported by other narrations. And it is mursal - however al-Dāraqutnī joins it - and it is (therefore) an authentic (ṣaḥīḥ) ḥadīth inshaaAllāh. (See Nasb ur Rāyah, l/70).

The author of 'al-Mughnī' (1/190) says: The touching is not in itself something which breaks wuḍūʾ but breaks wuḍūʾ as it leads to prostratic fluid or semen being emitted - so the condition which leads to breaking of the wuḍūʾ is considered - and that is when there is desire.

Summary: That when a man and woman are safe from anything being emitted which breaks wuḍūʾ - then their wuḍūʾ is not broken; and it is preferable to be on the safe side, as they may not be safe from such emissions in the condition of desire - and Allāh Knows best.

Conclusion:

This is what Allāh taʿala has made easy for us to gather together about the wuḍūʾ and its rulings, so we hope from Allāh the Most High, the All-Powerful, that we have been able to do justice to the subject - and we hope that any scholarly solicitous brother who comes across anything in our booklet which is incorrect to cover up and give sincere advice. And it is Allāh who grants success.

REFERENCES:

1. Al Qurʾān al Kareem.

2. Fat‘h al Bārī - Explanation of Ṣaḥīḥ ul Bukhārī - by Ibn Hajr.

3. Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim with al-Nawawī's explanation.

4. Sunan Abī Dāwūd.

5. Sunan an-Nasaa'ee.

6. Jāmiʿ' ut-Tirmidhī.

7. Sunan Ibn Mājah.

8. Al-Musnad of Imam Aḥmad.

9. As-Sunan al Kubraa of aI-Baihaqee.

10. Al-Mustadrak 'alas-Ṣaḥīḥain by al-Ḥākim.

11. Al-Muwaṭṭa with az-Zarqaanees explanation.

12. Majma' al-Zawāʾid by al-Haitumee.

13. Nasb ur-Rāyah of az-Zaila'ee.

14. Kanz ul Ummaal.

15. Al Mughnee wash-Sharḥ ul Kabeer- Ibn Qudāmah.

16. Sharḥ us-Sunnah al Baghawee.

17. Al-Majmūʿ of al-Nawawī.

18. Al-Isbidhkaar of Ibn 'Abd il Barr.

19. Mirqaat ul Mafaateeh Sharḥ of Mishkaat ul Masaabeeh.

20. Ṣaḥīḥ ul-Jāmiʿ' us-Sagheer by al-Albānī.

21. Da'eef ul Jāmiʿ' us-Sagheer by al-Albānī.

22. Nail ul Autaar of ash-Shaukaanee.

23. Subul us-Salām of as-San'aanee.

24. Fiqh us-Sunnah of Sayyid Sābiq.

25. Minḥāj us-Sunnah of Ibn Taimiyyah.

26. Tahdheeb-ut-Tahdheeb of Ibn Hajr.

27. Fiqh of al Imam Saʿīd ibn al Mūsáyyib.

28. Fiqh of al Imam al Auzaa'ee.

29. Lisaan ul 'Arab of Ibn Manzoor.

30. Mashaariq ul Anwaar.

31. 'Aun al Ma'bood explana~ion of Abī Dāwūd.

32. 'Aaridat-ul-Aḥwadhī explanahon of al-Tirmidhī.

33. Tafsīr Ibn Kathīr.

34. Fath-ul-Qadeer by ash-Shaukaanee.

35. Kitāb-ul-Imaan by Ibn Taimiyyah.

36. Majmūʿat-ur-Rasaa'il il-Kubraa by Ibn Taimiyyah.

37. At Tafsīr ul Kabeer of Al Fakhr-ur-Rāzee.

38. Lum'aat ut-Tanqeeh - explanation of Mishkaat ul-Masaabeeh.

39. At-Ta'leeqaat us-Salafīyyah upon Sunan of an-Nasaa'ee.

[1]That which makes normal actions, such as eating and talking, forbidden therein. again

[2]That which renders normal actions permissible

[3]The amount held by the two hands placed together.

[4]A narration whose isnād is authentic but contraḍīcts that which is better established.

[5]Khilāf (difference) of Scholars - That sleep is in itself something which breaks wuḍūʾ. ḥadīth "except from urine or excretion or sleep" ... and further, thus ḥadīth itself is a proof for this saying.

 
Translated by Dāwūd Burbank al-Britaanee
 

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