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Denying the Punishment of the Grave

   

A timely and decisive reply to the likes of Taqiyy al-Dīn al-Nabahānī and ʿŪmar Bakri Muḥammad - the spearheads, old and new - of the modernist political party known as Ḥizb al-Taḥrīr.

bismallah

  

  Having īmān in the punishment of the grave is an obligation upon all Muslims, and it was indeed part of the ʿaqīdah of our Salaf al-Ṣāliḥ, and was previously being denied only by a group of innovators. It is hoped that those who have erred from the way of the Salaf al-Ṣāliḥ – the way of Ahl al-Sunnah wa-al-Jamāʿah – would re-assess their stance in light of the evidences presented, hoping that they will return to the truth.


PAST HISTORY:
 

From those early sects which denied īmān (firm faith) in the Punishment of the Grave were the Khawārij and a group from the Muʾtazilah. [1] The Muʾtazilah said, “Our scholars deny the Punishment of the Grave and its rewards.” [2] This is because they innovated a rule that only mutawātir [3] aḥādīth amount to knowledge, whereas the authentic āhād [4] aḥādīth do not.  And this statement of theirs, that the āhād aḥādīth do not amount to knowledge means that such aḥādīth– in their false opinion – are not free from the possibility of falsehood, nor error.

Due to this innovated principle, they denied those aḥādīth affirming that the Punishment of the Grave in indeed a true fact, and that it will definitely occur for the disbelievers and some of the sinful ones from this Ummah – may Allāh protect us from it – since these aḥādīth were to them of the āhād category.  So this false principle caused them to deny īmān in the Punishment of the Grave – not holding it as part of the ʿaqīdah (belief) which is in total opposition to that of the Salaf al-Ṣāliḥ (Righteous Predecessors) and the Ahl al-Sunnah wal-Jamāʿahwho followed them.

PRESENT-DAY TRAGEDY:

During the last few years, some of the innocent duʿāʾʾʾt (callers to Islām) have stumbled across the same innovated principle – that the authentic āhād ḥadīth does not amount to knowledge, and therefore cannot be taken as proof for matters of ʿaqīdah – causing a great number of them to doubt and to reject that the Punishment of the Grave is indeed a true fact; and that it was part of the ʿaqīdah held fast to by our Salaf.  The result is that discord – and it’s vile fruit – has raised it’s head again amongst some of the precious youth of this Ummah, encircling them just as a ring encircles the finger.

Imām Abū al-Madhaffar as-Samʿānee [5] – raḥimahullāh– said:

“If a narration is authentically reported from the Messenger of Allāh (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) – and related by reliable narrators and scholars – and they report it in connected form – their latter people from their predecessors – back to the Messenger of Allāh (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam), and it is accepted by the scholars, then it necessitates knowledge, where it leads to knowledge.  This is the statement of the great majority of the People of Ḥadīth, and those who are precise, and those who work to preserve the Sunnah.  But this saying of theirs, that the āhād narration does not amount to knowledge, and that it must be narrated in mutawātir form in order to result in knowledge, then this is something innovated by the Qadariyyah and the Muʾtazilah.  Their intention behind it was to reject the narrations.  It (the principle) was seized from them, without understanding, by some scholars of Fiqh, those who did not have a firm footing in knowledge, nor realize what the intent of this saying was.”[6]

THE DESIRED HOPE:

So this article will attempt to clarify – by the permission of Allāh – that having īmān in the Punishment of the Grave is an obligation upon all Muslims, and that it was indeed part of the ʿaqīdah of our Salaf al-Ṣāliḥ, previously being denied only by a group of innovators.  It is hoped that those who have erred from the way of the Salaf al-Ṣāliḥ – the way of Ahl al-Sunnah wal-Jamāʿah – would re-assess their stance in light of the evidences presented, hoping that they will return to the truth.  “For indeed the truth is cherished by the Believer, and in returning to it is nobility.  Whereas remaining upon falsehood and defect is despicable.” [7]  Remembering that, “the select and correct way is that which the Salaf al-Ṣāliḥ were upon – that being the truth.” [8]

EVIDENCES FROM THE PURE SUNNAH:

We shall – for the sake of brevity – consider the evidences from the pure Sunnah, and then look at the sayings of our Salaf al-Ṣāliḥ, and the scholars of Ahl al-Sunnah wal-Jamāʿah who followed them – omitting the evidences from the Qurʾān and it’s explanation from the Companions and the Tābi’īn.

[i] From ’Aa‘ishah (raḍī Allāhu ’anhaa) who said that:

A Jewess came to her and mentioned the Punishment of the Grave, saying to her: May Allāh protect you from the Punishment of the Grave.  So she asked the Messenger of Allāh (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) about it and he said, “Yes, there is Punishment in the Grave!”  ’Aa‘ishah (raḍī Allāhu ’anhaa) said: After that, I never saw the Messenger of Allāh (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam), except that he sought refuge from the Punishment of the Grave in every Prayer that he prayed. [9]

[ii] From Ibn ʿAbbās (raḍī Allāhu ʿʿʿanhumā) who said:

The Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) once passed by two graves and said, “They are being punished, not for something great.”  Then he said, “Rather one of them used to spread gossip and carry tales, whilst the other never protected himself from being soiled by his own urine.”  Ibn ʿAbbās said: He then took a green leaf and spread it into two pieces and places each piece upon each grave, and then he said, “May their punishment become lightened until these two pieces dry.” [10]

[iii] From Ibn Masʿūd (raḍī Allāhu ʿʿʿanhu) who said:

The Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said, “Indeed the dead are punished in their graves, and the animals hear them.” [11]

[iv] Haanee, the freed slave of ’Uthmān, related:

Whenever ’Uthmān (raḍī Allāhu ʿʿʿanhu) stood at a grave he would weep until his beard became soaked in tears.  It was said to him: Paradise and Hell are mentioned to you, and you do not weep, but you weep over this.  So he said: Indeed the Messenger of Allāh (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said, “Indeed the grave is the first stopping place for the Hereafter.  So if he is saved therein, then what comes after that is easier than that.  If he is not saved therefrom, then that which comes after is harder.” [12]

[v] From Abū Hurayrah (raḍī Allāhu ʿʿʿanhu) who said:

The Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said, “When one of you finishes the last tashahhud (testimony of faith), he should seek refuge in Allāh from four things: From the Punishment of Hell, from the Punishment of the Grave, from the trials of life and death, and from the evil trials of the Maseehud-Dajjāl(Anti-Christ).” [13]

[vi] From Umm Khālid ibt Khālid (raḍī Allāhu ’anhaa) who said:

The Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said, “Seek the Refuge of Allāh from the Punishment of the Grave, since the Punishment of the Grave is haqq (a true fact).” [14]

THE STATEMENTS OF THE SALAF OF THIS UMMAH:

Now consider – O honourable reader – the statements of the Salaf of this Ummah with respect to having ʿaqīdah (firm belief) in the Punishment of the Grave. 

[1] Sufyān Ibn ʿUyaynah (d.197H) – raḥimahullāh – said:

“The Sunnah is ten.  Whosoever accepts them has completed the Sunnah, and whosoever abandons anything from them has abandoned the Sunnah: Affirming al-Qadar (pre-destination), giving precedence to Abū Bakr and ʿUmar, the Pond in Paradise, Shafaa’ah (Intercession), the Scales, the Bridge over Hellfire, īmān is statement and action, the Qurʾānis the speech of Allāh, Punishment in the Grave, being raised-up on the Day of Judgement and not testifying that any Muslim will definitely be in Paradise or Hell.” [15]

[2] Imām al-Shāfiʿī (d.204H) – raḥimahullāh– said:

“Indeed, al-Qadar (pre-destination); both good and evil consequences are from Allāh – the Mighty and Majestic.  Indeed, the Punishment of the Grave is a true fact, the Resurrection is a true fact, the Accountability is a true fact, Paradise and Hellfire are true facts.  Whatever else is related in the Sunnah and so mentioned by the scholars, and their followers throughout the lands of the Muslims is also true.” [16]

[3] Imām Aḥmad (d.241H) – raḥimahullāh – said:

“From the essential Sunnah, which if a person leaves any one of its points – not accepting it and not having īmān in it – then he will not be from amongst its people are: (he then mentions) īmān in the Punishment of the Grave.” [17] He also said, “Punishment in the Grave is a true fact.  The servant will be questioned about his Religion and his Lord.  Munkar and Nakeer and Paradise and Hellfire are also true facts.”

[4] Abū Dāwūd (d.275H) – raḥimahullāh– said:

“Chapter: Questioning in the Grave and the Punishment of the Grave.’’ [19]

[5] Ibn Qutaybah (d.278H) - raḥimahullāh- said:

‘‘The People of Ḥadīth are united upon the fact that whatever Allāh wills, happens, and whatever He does not will, does not happen; that He is the Creator of good and evil; and that the Qurʾān is the Speech of Allāh, uncreated; that Allāh will be seen on the Day of Judgement, giving precedence to Abū Bakr and ʿUmar, upon īmān in the Punishment of the Grave. They do not differ in need of these fundamentals.  Whosoever opposes them in any of these matters, then they reject, hate, and declare such a one an innovator, and cut themselves off from him.’’ [20]

[6] Imām al-Ṭahāwī (d.321H) - raḥimahullāh - said:

‘‘This is an explanation of the ʿaqīdah of Ahl al-Sunnah wal-Jamāʿah upon the way of the scholars of this Religion; Abū Ḥanīfah al-Nuʿmān Ibn Thābit al-Koofī, Abū Yūsuf Ya’qoob Ibn Ibrāhīm al-Anṣārī, and Abū ʿAbdullāh Muḥammad Ibn al-Ḥasan ash-Shaybaanee - may Allāh be pleased with them all - and the beliefs they held concerning the fundamentals of the Religion, and their ʿaqīdah concerning the Lord of the Worlds.’’  Up until he said, ‘‘We have īmānin the Angel of Death who is charged with taking the souls of all the worlds; and in the Punishment of the Grave for those who deserve it.’’ [21]

[7] Abū al-Ḥasan al-Ashʿarī (d.324H) - raḥimahullāh- said:

‘‘The Muʾtazilah denied the Punishment of the Grave.  It has been related by the Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) through many paths, and by his Companions (raḍī Allāhu ʿʿʿanhum).  Nothing has been related from a single one of them denying or negating this, to the point where there is ijmāʿ’ (consensus) from the Companions of the Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam).’’ [22] He also said, ‘‘There is consensus that the Punishment of the Grave is a true fact, and that the people will be tested and questioned in their graves.  So may Allāh establish us upon that which He loves.’’ [23]

[8] Imām al-Ājurrī (d.360H) - raḥimahullāh - said:

‘‘Chapter: Tasdeeq (affirmation) and īmān in the Punishment of the Grave.’’ Here he brings many of the aḥādīth related by al-Bukhārī and Muslims and ends the chapter by saying, ‘‘So what is the condition of those who deny these aḥādīth, except that they have deviated very far and are in a huge loss.’’ [24]

[9] Ibn Abī Ḥātim (d.327H) - raḥimahullāh - said:

‘‘Our chosen way is to follow the Messenger of Allāh (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam), the Companions, the tābiʿīn, and all those who followed them in goodness; along with the abandonment of looking into the innovated matters, to hold fast to the way of Ahl al-Athar (People of Narrations), such as Abū ʿAbdullāh Aḥmad Ibn Ḥanbal, Ishāq Ibn Ibrāhīm, Abū ’ʿUbayd al-Qāsim Ibn Sallām and al-Shāfiʿī; to hold fast to the Book and the Sunnah upon the way of the Imāms who follow the narrations of the Salaf; adopting what was adopted by the Ahl al-Sunnah from the various cities.’’ Up until his statement, ‘‘Faith increases and decreases, and we have īmānin the Punishment of the Grave.’’ [25]

[10] Imām al-Barbahārī (d.329H) - raḥimahullāh - said:

‘‘Īmān in the Punishment of the Grave, and Munkar and Nakeer.’’ [26]

[11] Al-Ismāʿīlee (d.371H) - raḥimahullāh - said:

‘‘Know - may Allāh have mercy upon us and you - that the way of the Ahlul-ḤadīthAhl al-Sunnah wal-Jamāʿah is to affirm belief in Allāh, His Angels, His Books, His Messengers, and to accept whatever is recorded in the Book of Allāh - the Most High - and whatever is authentically reported from the Messenger of Allāh (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam),’’ up until he said, ‘‘Punishment in the Grave is a true fact.’’ [27]

[12] Al-Qayrawaanee (d.386H) - raḥimahullāh - said:

Under the chapter, ‘‘What is related in the Sunnah about the ʿaqīdah of the heart from the obligatory matters of the Religion.  From this is īmān in the heart, and pronouncing with the heart that Allāh is the only deity worthy of worship, none has the right to be worshipped except Him.’’  Up until the statement, ‘‘And the Punishment in the Grave is a true fact, and the Believers will be tested in their graves.’’ [28]

[13] Ibn Abī Zamnīn (d.399H) - raḥimahullāh - said:

‘‘Ahl al-Sunnah has īmān in the Punishment of the Grave, may Allāh protect us and you from this.’’ [29] 

[14] Imām al-Lālikaa‘ee (d.418H) - raḥimahullāh- said:

‘‘Chapter: A report of what is related from the Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) with regards to the fact that when the Muslims are lowered into their graves, they will be questioned by Munkar and Nakeer, and that the Punishment in the Grave is a true fact, and īmānin it is obligatory.’’ [30]

[15] Imām al-Bayḥaqī (d.458H) - raḥimahullāh - said:

‘‘Chapter: Īmān in the Punishment of the Grave.’’ [31]

THE MEANING OF ĪMĀN:

Al-Ḥāfiẓ Ibn Ḥajar (d.852H) - raḥimahullāh - said:

‘‘Īmān in the language means: tasdeeq: (attesting to the truth). In the Sharīʿah, it means: tasdeeq of what the Messenger (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) brought from his Lord - and this much is agreed upon. Then there is a difference.  Is anything else a condition on top of that, such as stating this īmān upon the tongue, as well as it being in the heart, or action upon what is attested to by what is ordered and leaving what is forbidden.’’  Up until where al-Ḥāfiẓ said, ‘‘So the Salaf say, īmān is ʿaqīdah in the heart, statement of the tongue, and action of the limbs.  They mean by this, that actions are a condition for its completeness. So from this comes their saying that it increases and decreases, as will follow.  The Murjī’ah say, it is ʿaqīdah and a statement upon the tongue only. The Karraamiyyah say, it is the statement of the tongue only.  And the Muʾtazilah say, it is action, statement and ʿaqīdah. But the difference between the Muʾtazilah and the Salaf is that the Muʾtazilah make actions a condition for the correctness of īmān, whereas the Salaf make it a condition for its completeness.  As for the second point, then the Salaf hold that it increases and decreases, whereas most of the people of kalām(theological rhetoric) reject this by saying that if it is liable to decrease, then it is doubt.’’ [32]

Thus, the Salaf agreed that īmān is ʿaqīdah, statement, and action.  So, whosoever denies ʿaqīdah in the Punishment of the Grave, has likewise denied īmān in it.  Since ʿaqīdah in the heart is the foundation of īmān - about which there is agreement from the scholars of Ahl al-Sunnah wal-Jamāʿah.

Imām al-Baghawī (d.535H) - raḥimahullāh - said:

‘‘The Companions and the Tābi’īn, and those who came after them from the scholars of the Sunnah are agreed that actions are a part of īmān…and they say: Indeed īmān is a statement, action and ʿaqīdah.  It increases with obedience, and decreases with disobedience.’’ [33]

Having understood this, the falsehood of those who claim to have īmān in the Punishment of the Grave, whilst denying ʿaqīdah in it, will become very clear.  Since our Salaf al-Ṣāliḥ held that the root of īmān in the Punishment of the Grave is to have ʿaqīdah in it - so if there is no ʿaqīdah in the Punishment of the Grave, then there is - by default - no īmān in it as well!

THE GRAVE MISTAKE:

It is thus clear, that the Salaf and those who followed them were agreed that the Punishment in the Grave will definitely occur (for the disbelievers and some of the sinful ones from amongst the Muslims) and that it is obligatory to have īmān in it, and to consider it as part of the Islamic ʿaqīdah - and no one whose saying is taken account of opposes them in that.

However, the founder of the modernist party Hizbut-Tahreer, like the Muʾtazilah before, also denied ʿaqīdah in the Punishment of the Grave, explaining his position by saying:

‘‘Indeed from them (the āhād aḥādīth) are those which require an action, so it is acted upon.  So from Abū Hurayrah who said: The Messenger of Allāh (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said: ‘‘When any of you finishes the last tashahhud, he should seek refuge in Allāh from four things: from the Punishment of the Hellfire, from the Punishment of the Grave, from the trials of life and death, and from the evil trials of the Dajjāl.’’  And from ’Aa‘ishah: from the Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam), that he used to make supplication in the Prayer saying: ‘‘O Allāh!  I seek refuge in You from the Punishment of the Grave, I seek refuge in You from the trials of the Maseehud-Dajjāl, I seek refuge in You from the trials of life and death.  O Allāh!  I seek refuge in You from debt and sin.’’  So these two aḥādīth are āhād narrations, and they contain the requirement of an action, i.e. to carry out this supplication after finishing the tashahhud.  So it is recommended to make this supplication after finishing the tashahhud, and it is permissible to make tasdeeq (attest) of what is contained in them.  However, what is ḥarām (prohibited) is to hold it with certainty - meaning: to have it as part of ones ʿaqīdah - as long as it has only been reported in the āhādḥadīth, a dhannee (non-mutawātir) proof.  However, if it occurs in mutawātir form, then it is obligatory to make it part of ones ʿaqīdah.’’ [34]

This saying contains a number of short-comings:

[i] Differentiating between the āhād and mutawātir aḥādīth in matters of ʿaqīdah is an innovation of the Qadariyyah and the Muʾtazilah - as has already been explained.

[ii] Making tasdeeq of the Punishment of the Grave, whilst prohibiting a person to have ʿaqīdah (belief) in it, is a contraḍīction in terms.  Since - as has preceeded from the words of al-Ḥāfiẓ Ibn Ḥajar - tasdeeq is attesting to the truth of something in the heart, which is the same as ʿaqīdah and which thereby necessitates īmān.  However, differentiating between tasdeeq and ʿaqīdah is innovated speech, opposing the way of our Salaf.  Unfortunately, the likes of this innovation has clearly been stated by the present leader of Ḥizb al-Taḥrīr in Britain, when he said: ‘‘We trust it; and I encourage all of you ’an tasaddiqoo bi ’adhaabil qabr (to have tasdeeq in the Punishment of the Grave).  I encourage all of you ’an tasaddiqoo bi ’awdatil-Mahdī (to have tasdeeq in the return of the Mahdī).  I encourage you for that, but whoever believes in that, then he is sinful.’’ [35]

[iii] How is it possible to affirm the Punishment of the Grave upon the tongue, whilst prohibiting ʿaqīdah (belief) of it in the heart - is this not but nifāq (hypocrisy)?!  Rather, īmān in the Punishment of the Grave necessitates - as a foundation - ʿaqīdah in the heart!!  May Allāh have mercy upon Imām Aḥmad, who said: ‘‘You should beware of speaking about an issue in which you are not preceded by a scholar.’’ [36]

[iv] Along with all this, it must be remembered that: ‘‘It is not permissible to invent an interpretation about an āyah, or about a Sunnah, which was not there in the time of the Salaf; nor did they have any knowledge about it; nor explain it to the Ummah.  Since this would imply that the Salaf were ignorant of the truth in this matter and failed to reach it, whereas the late-coming opponent is somehow guided to the truth!’’ [37] 

Imām al-Awzāʿī (d.157H) - raḥimahullāh- said:

‘‘Hold fast to the narrations of the Salaf, even if the people were to abandon you.  Beware of the opinions of the people, no matter how much they beautify it with their speech.’’ [38]

Abū Ḥanīfah (d.150H) - raḥimahullāh - said:

‘‘Stick to the al-athar (narration) and the way of the Salaf and beware of newly invented matters, for all of it is innovation.’’ [39]

So denying ʿaqīdah in the Punishment of the Grave, declaring this to be something sinful and prohibited, declaring also that it is not a matter which will definitely occur, but it is a matter which may possibly occur - is speech in opposition to that of the Salaf al-Ṣāliḥ - the like of which was previously uttered by only the Khawārij, and a group from amongst the Muʾtazilah; and there is no doubt in its being a deviation from the Straight Path.

Likewise, outwardly affirming tasdeeq and apparently affirming īmān in the Punishment of the Grave, whilst denying ʿaqīdah in it, is only a contraḍīction in terms - since tasdeeqīmān, and ʿaqīdah in the opinion of the Salaf, all imply certainty and being definite - even if the modernists dislike this!

Imām Aḥmad (d.241H) - raḥimahullāh - said:

‘‘The Punishment of the Grave is a true fact; and no one denies it except one who is misguided and misguiding others.’’ [40]

An-Nāṣiree (d.652H) - raḥimahullāh - said in al-Nūrul-Lāmi’ (no. 110):

‘‘We have īmān in the Punishment of the Grave and its bliss…this is the madh′hab of Ahl al-Sunnah wal-Jamāʿah.  So it is obligatory to have ʿaqīdah in this.’’

Imām al-Nawawī (d.676H) - raḥimahullāh - said in Sharḥ Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim (5/85):

‘‘This chapter shows the virtue of seeking refuge - between the tashahhud and taslīm - from these (four) matters; and in it is an affirmation of the Punishment of the Grave, and it is the position of the people of the truth - as opposed to the Muʾtazilah.’’

Imām al-Qurṭabī (d.671H) - raḥimahullāh- said:

‘‘To have īmān in the Punishment of the Grave and its trials is obligatory, due to what the most truthful (Muḥammad - ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) has mentioned. This is the belief of Ahl al-Sunnah wal-Jamāʿah.’’ [41]

NEED FOR VERIFICATION:

‘‘So examine - may Allāh have mercy upon you - the speech of everyone you hear from, particularly in your time.  Do not act in haste, nor enter into anything from it until you ask and see: Did any of the Companions of the Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) speak about it, or any of the Scholars.  So if you find a narration from them about it, then cling to it.  Do not go beyond it for anything, and do not give precedence to anything over it, and thus fall into the Fire.’’ [42]

Ibn Sīrīn (d.110) - raḥimahullāh- said:

‘‘This knowledge is the Religion, so be careful from whom you take your Religion.’’ [43]

Qaadee Shareek (d.177H) - raḥimahullāh - said:

’Ibaad Ibn al-’Awwaam said: Shareek Ibn ʿAbdullāh came to us more than fifty years ago, so we said to him: O Abā ʿAbdullāh!  There are a group of the Muʾtazilah who deny the aḥādīth about Allāh descending to the lowest heaven and that the people shall see their Lord.  So Shareek quoted about ten aḥādīth like that, and then said: ‘‘As for us, then we have taken our Religion from the sons of the Tābi’īn, from the Companions.  From whom did they take theirs?’’ [44]

So there is in what has preceded - if Allāh wills - a clear explanation for those whose hearts have been enlightened by Allāh with the light of Revelation, and whose has hearts have found peace and delight in the narrations of the Salaf al-Ṣāliḥ. Indeed it is this which brings about a firmness of understanding and is a remedy against the darkness of ḥizbiyyah (party-spirit).  This, in turn, produces the purity and quality, even if numbers are small.  Indeed mere numbers in opposition to the manhaj (methodology) of the Salaf - the manhaj of Ahl al-Sunnah wal-Jamāʿah - leads to nothing but deception, destruction and extreme disappointment.

 

Endnotes:

[1] As quoted by Abū al-Ḥasan al-Ashʿarī in al-Maqālātul-Islāmiyyeen (p. 430).

[2] Fiqhul-Uṣūlil-Khamsiyyah (p. 733), and Fadlul-I’tizaal (p. 202) of Qaadee ʿAbd al-Jabbaar, the Mu’tazilee.  What they denied was having faith, or ʿaqīdah in what the narrations entailed, not that thy denied the existence of aḥādīth concerning the Punishment of the Grave – as some have mistakenly said!

[3] Shaykh Maḥmūd at-Tahhaan says in Tayseer Mustalahil-Ḥadīth (p. 20-21) about the definition of mutawātir, “Technically, it is that which is related by such a large number of people, that it is impossible that they could have invented a lie.  It’s conditions are i) that it must be narrated by a large number of people, scholars differ about the actual number required, ii) That this number must be found in every level of the chain, iii) That is is impossible that they could have gathered together upon a lie.”  Refer to Nuzhatun-Nadhr fī Tawdeehi Nukhbatil-Fikr (p. 57) of al-Ḥāfiẓ Ibn Ḥajar, and Tadrībur-Rāwee (2/177) of as-Suyootee.

[4] Ibn Ḥajar says in Nuzhatun-Nadhr (p. 71), about the definition of the āhād ḥadīth, “It is that which does not fulfill the condition of the mutawātir.”  And the āhād narrations constitute the majority of narrations, whether in the collections of al-Bukhārī and Muslim, or in other than them.

[5] He is Abū al-Madhaffar as-Samʿānee, the scholar of Ḥadīth and Uṣūl.  He died in the year 489H – may Allāh have mercy upon him.

[6] Sawnul-Mantaq wal-Kʿalám (p. 160) of as-Suyootee quoting al-Intisaar Ahlil-Ḥadīth of as-Samʿānee.

[7] Iqaamatul-Burhān (p. 23) of Shaykh Hamood at-Tuwayjiree.

[8] Al-Adhkaar (p. 32) of Imām al-Nawawī.

[9] Related by al-Bukhārī (no. 1372)

[10] Related by al-Bukhārī (no. 1378)

[11] Ṣaḥīḥ: Related by at-Ṭabarānī (3/78/2), and it was authenticted by al-Albānī in al-Ṣaḥihah (no. 1377).

[12] Ḥasan: Related by al-Tirmidhī (no. 2424), and Ibn Mājah (no. 4267), and it has been authenticated by Shaykh al-Albānī in Takhreejul-Mishkaat (no. 132).

[13] Related by Muslim (2/93), Abū Dāwūd (no. 983), and others from Abū Hurayrah (raḍī Allāhu ʿʿʿanhu).

[14] Related by at-Ṭabarānī in al-Kabīr from Umm Khālid ibnt Khālid Ibn Saʿīd Ibn al-ʿĀs (raḍī Allāhu ’anhaa), it was authenticated by al-Albānī in al-Ṣaḥihah(no. 1444).

[15] Sharḥ Uṣūl al-Iʿtiqād Ahl al-Sunnah wal-Jamāʿah(no. 312) of al-Lālikaa‘ee.

[16] al-Manaaqibush-Shaafi’ee (1/415).

[17] Uṣūl-Sunnah (no. 8) of Imām Aḥmad

[18] Risaalatus-Sunnah (p. 72) of Imām Aḥmad

[19] Kitābus-Sunnah (p. 900) of Sunan Abī Dāwūd

[20] Ta‘weel Mukhtaliful-Ḥadīth (p. 18)

[21] ’ʿAqīdahtut-Tahaawiyyah (no. 79-80)

[22] al-Ibānah ’an Uṣūlid-Diyaanah (p. 201)

[23] Risālah ilā Ahlith-Thaghr (p. 279) of Abū al-Ḥasan al-Ashʿarī.

[24] al-Sharīʿah (p. 358-364) of al-Aajuree

[25] Aslus-Sunnah wa Iʿtiqādud-Dīn (no. 14)

[26] Sharḥ al-Sunnah (no. 18)

[27] Iʿtiqād A‘immatul-Ḥadīth (no. 22)

[28] Related by Ibn al-Qayyim in Ijtimaa’ul-Juyooshil-Islāmiyyah (p. 152)

[29] Uṣūl-Sunnah (Q.7)

[30] Sharḥ Uṣūl al-Iʿtiqād (6/1127) of al-Lālikaa‘ee.

[31] al-Iʿtiqād (p. 107) of al-Bayḥaqī

[32] Abbreviated from Fat′h al-Bārī (1/60-61)

[33] Sharḥ al-Sunnah (1/38-39) of Imām al-Baghawī

[34] ad-Dawsiyyah (p. 6) of Taqiyy al-Dīn an-Nabahaanee - the founder of Hizbut-Tahreer- may Allāh forgive him.

[35] From an available taped lecture entitled Punishment of the Grave.  [Regents Park Mosque, 2ndMay 1992CE] by Omar Bakri Mohammad.

[36] Quoted by Ibn al-Qayyim in I’lāmul-Muwaqqi’een (4/266)

[37] as-Saarimul-Munkee (p. 427) of al-Ḥāfiẓ Ibn ʿAbd al-Hādī

[38] Related by al-Khaṭīb al-Baghdādī in his excellent book, Sharaf Aṣḥāb al-Ḥadīth(p. 7).

[39] Related by as-Suyootee in Sawnul-Mantaq wal-Kalām (p. 32)

[40] Tabaqaatul-Hanaabilah (1/174) of Ibn Abī Ya’lā

[41] at-Tadhkirah (p. 137) of Imām al-Qurṭabī.

[42] Kitāb Sharḥ al-Sunnah (no. 5)

[43] Related by Muslim in the introduction to his Ṣaḥīḥ (no. 114), and also by Abū Nuʿaym in Hilyatul-Awliyaa‘ (2/278)

[44] Related by Ibn Mandah in al-Tawḥīd (1/97)

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