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The Ḥadīth on Najd

   

Many of the lying Ṣūfīs have utilized the aḥādīth pertaining to Najd as an evidence against the daʿwah of Shaykh al-Islām Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhāb (d. AH 1206) – raḥimahullāh. And they use it to this day to fight Ahl al-Sunnah. However, if they only knew that this ḥadīth is in fact an evidence against them, not an evidence in their favour.

bismallah

  

  A ḥadīth which has some controversy surrounding it due to obvious sectarian reasons. A ḥadīth which has been (deliberately) misunderstood by certain groups of people in order that they may spread their misguidance and deceive ignorant Muslims.

 

The Messenger of Allāh, ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam, said, "O Allāh bestow your blessings on our Shām. O Allāh bestow your blessings on our Yemen." The people said, "O Messenger of Allāh, and our Najd." I think the third time the Prophet, ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam, said, "There (in Najd) will occur earthquakes, trials and tribulations, and from their appears the Horn of Satan."

Reported in al-Bukhārī [Book of Trials, Chpt. ‘The afflictions will come from the East’ 9/166 no. 214 Eng. Trans]

A ḥadīth which has some controversy surrounding it due to obvious sectarian reasons. A ḥadīth which has been (deliberately) misunderstood by certain groups of people in order that they may spread their misguidance and deceive ignorant Muslims.

This because upon research and investigation and looking to the words of our early scholars we find that this ḥadīth does not refer to the Najd that is famously known in Saudi today, but rather it refers to ʿIrāq.

About two years ago I read a book entirely devoted to this ḥadīth entitled, "an-Najd Qarnu al-Shayṭān" [I cannot remember the author as I do not have the book on me anymore.] I will quote in general from what I remember from this book, and refrain from mentioning precise quotes except from those references that I have on me.

Amongst the scholars that are mentioned who referred this ḥadīth to ʿIrāq were: al-Khaṭṭābī, al-Kirmānī, al-Aynī, al-Nawawī, ibn Hajr and others. The reasons behind this are numerous and clear:

1.The generality of the ḥadīth pertaining to the fitna coming from the east.

Al-Bukhārī includes this ḥadīth in the chapter: "The affliction will appear from the East"

212) From the father of Sālim: The Prophet, ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam, stood up besides the pulpit (and pointed towards the east) and said: "Afflictions are there! Afflictions are there! From where appears the horn of Satan" or he said, "the horn of the Sun"

213) From ibn ʿUmar that he said: I heard the Messenger of Allāh, ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam, saying while facing the east: "Indeed Afflictions are there, from where appears the Horn of Satan."

214) The ḥadīth of Najd under discussion.

Similar ḥadīth can be found in Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim (volume 4 no.'s. 6938+). Ḥadīth that give the same meaning can be found in Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim (volume 1 no.'s 83+)

2) That the generality of the early trials and tribulations arose from the east, many of them actually in ʿIrāq itself.

Ibn Hajr al-Asqʿalánee said after quoting the words of al-Khaṭṭābī explaining the meaning of Qarn (horn), "and others have said that the People of the East were disbelievers at that time and the Messenger of Allāh, ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam, informed us that the trials and tribulations would arise from that direction and it was as he said. And the first of the trials that arose, arose from the direction of the east and they were the reason for the splitting of the Muslim ranks, and this is what Satan loves and delights in. Likewise, the innovations appeared from that direction." [Fath al-Bārī 13/58 in commentary to the ḥadīth of Najd]

Amongst the trials that arose in ʿIrāq and the east was the martyrdom of ʿAlī, the martyrdom of the grandson of the Prophet, ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam, the first battle between the Muslims occurred in ʿIrāq, and many more.

Imām Nawawee mentions that one of the greatest trials to appear from the East will be the appearance of the Dajjāl. [Sharḥ Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim 2/29]

From the innovations that appeared in the east and specifically ʿIrāq, was many of the early deviant sects amongst them the Qadariyyah (as the first ḥadīth in Muslim shows), the Jahmiyyah and their offshoots etc…

3.That at the time of the Prophet, ṣallāhu ʿalayhis wa-sallām, there were 13 places known as Najd [according to ‘Najd Qarnu ash-Shayṭān’] depending on where one was. This because Najd linguistically means a raised/elevated land. Therefore, the Arabs referred to lands that were elevated with respect to them as Najd. One of the most commonly referred to areas at that time as Najd was ʿIrāq.


4.The Najd for those people living in Madīnah in the direction of the East would be ʿIrāq.

Ibn Hajr said: "al-Khaṭṭābī said: ‘the najd in the direction of the east, and for the one who is in Madīnah then his Najd would be the desert of ʿIrāq and it’s regions [baadiya al-ʿIrāq wa Nawaaheehaa] for this is to the east of the People of Madīnah. The basic meaning of Najd is that which is raised/elevated from the earth in contravention to al-Gawr for that is what is lower than it. Tihaamah [the coastal plain along the south-western and southern shores of the al-ʿArabīan Peninsula] is entirely al-Gawr and Mecca is in Tihaamah.’"

Ibn Hajr continues, "by this [saying of al-Khaṭṭābī] the weakness of the saying of ad-Daawodee is understood that ‘Najd is in the direction of ʿIrāq’ for he suggests that Najd is a specific place. This is not the case, rather everything that is elevated with respect to what adjoins it is called Najd and the lower area called Gawr." [Fath al-Bārī 13/58-59]

Al-Mubārakfūrī endorses these words in his commentary to Sunan al-Tirmidhī (10/314 no.4212)

5.The ḥadīth in Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim [4/1505 no.6943]

Saalim ibn ʿAbdullāh ibn ʿUmar said: O people of ʿIrāq, how strange is it that you ask about the minor sins but commit the major sins? [The killing of al-Husayn] I heard my father, ʿAbdullāh ibn ʿUmar narrating that he heard the Messenger of Allāh, ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam, saying while pointing his hand to the east: "Indeed the turmoil would come from this side, from where appear the horns of Satan and you would strike the necks of one another…"

6.The variations in wording of the ḥadīth of Najd that leave no doubt whatsoever as to what it refers to.

a.The ḥadīth of ibn ʿUmar Reported by Abū Nuʿaym in al-Hilya (6/133), "O Allāh bestow your blessings on our Madīnah, and bestow your blessings on our Mecca, and bestow your blessings on our Shaam, and bestow your blessings on our Yemen, and bestow your blessings in our measuring (fī saa’inaa wa muddinaa)." A person said, " O Messenger of Allāh and in our ʿIrāq" and so he turned away from him and said, "there will occur earthquakes, trials and tribulations and there will appear the horn of Satan."

Shuʿayb al-Arna’ut declares it’s isnād to be ṣaḥīḥ as in his endnotes to ‘Sharḥ al-Sunnah’ (14/206-207 fn. 2) and he too endorses the words of al-Khaṭṭābī quoted above.

b.The ḥadīth of ibn ʿUmar reported in at-Ṭabarānī in ‘al-Awsaṭ’ that the Messenger of Allāh, ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam prayed Fajr and then faced the people and said, "O Allāh bestow your blessings on our Madīnah, O Allāh bestow your blessings in our measuring, O Allāh bestow your blessings in our Shām and our Yemen." A person said, "And ʿIrāq O Messenger of Allāh?" He said, "from there arises the horn of Satan and the trials and tribulations would come like mounting waves."

Ibn Hajr al-Haythamī says in his ‘Mujma az-Zawaa’id’ (3/305 – chapter ‘collection of duʿāʾʾʾs made for (Madīnah)’): ‘its narrators are trustworthy and precise.’

[This ḥadīth could possibly be considered to be the same as b) above, but I have included it separately due to the slight difference in wording. Allāh knows best.]

c.The ḥadīth of ibn ʿAbbās reported by at-Ṭabarānī in ‘al-Kabīr’ that the Prophet, ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam, supplicated and said, "O Allāh bestow your blessings on our Shām and Yemen." A person from amongst the people said, "O Prophet of Allāh and ʿIrāq?" He said, "indeed there is the Horn of Satan, and the trials and tribulations will come like mounting waves, and indeed harshness/coarseness is in the east."

Al-Haythamī says: "it’s narrators are trustworthy and precise." (ibid.)

3.The virtues of Bani Tamīm

Bani Tamīm constitute the majority of the inhabitants of the Najd that is in Saudi al-ʿArabīa.

a.The ḥadīth of Ṣaḥīḥ Bukhārī reported by Abū Hurayra (raḍī Allāhu ʿanhū): "I have loved the people of the tribe of Bani Tamīm, ever since I heard three things the Messenger of Allāh , ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam, said about them. I heard him saying, ‘these people (of the tribe of Bani Tamīm) would stand firm against the Dajjāl.’ When the Ṣaddaqat from that tribe came, the Messenger of Allāh, ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam, said, "these are the Ṣaddaqat (charitable gifts) of our folk." Aa’ishah had a slave girl from that tribe, and the Prophet , ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam, said to Aa’ishah, ‘manumit her as she is a descendant of Ismāʿīl, ʿalayhis salām.’"

[Ḥadīth no. 2543, 4366 of al-Fath] Ibn Hajr al-Asqʿalánee said, "this ḥadīth also contains a clear mention of the excellence and superiority of Bani Tamīm." [Fath 5/217]

b.The ḥadīth of Ikrimah from one of the Companions reported in the Musnad of Imām Aḥmad and in it occurs, "do not say of Bani Tamīm anything but good, for indeed they are the severest of people in attacking the Dajjāl."

Al-Haythamī says: "its narrators are those of the Ṣaḥīḥ." [Mujma 10/48 chpt: What is reported concerning Bani Tamīm]

It is not strange that Bani Tamīm would be the most severe against the Dajjāl, because the tools required to combat him are none but a correct and firm belief and proper beneficial knowledge. Alhumdulillāh many of the scholars of Saudi are from the most noble and skilled scholars on the face of this earth today, firmly upon the way of our noble Messenger, ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam.

This is what Allāh has allowed me to very quickly put together.

And our Lord Most High Knows best.

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