The Tafsīr of Sūrah al-Nabāʾ (Sūrah 78)
The Tafsīr of Sūrah al-Nabāʾ (Sūrah 78) – the entire book
An emphasised and a confirmed warning for those who deny this Day that they will certainly come to know that the Day of Resurrection is true. Allāh shows His abilities to produce the Signs of this Day and He tells about its magnitude in the following verses so that the people contemplate and realise that Allāh, Who is able to bring about these Signs, is All-Able to bring life to the Dead as well as Resurrection.
All praise is due to Allāh, we praise Him, and seek His help and forgiveness. We seek refuge in Allāh, Most High, from the evils of our own selves and from our wicked deeds. Whoever Allāh guides, there is none who can musguide him, whoever Allāh allows to be misguided cannot be guided. I testify that there is no true God worthy of being worshipped except Allāh, alone, without partner or associate. I further testify that Muḥammad is His true slave and Messenger (ṣalla Allāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam)(1).
May Allāh's al-Ṣalāh and Salām be also granted to the Prophet's pure family, and to all of his noble companions.
"O you believe! Fear Allāh [by doing all that He ordered and abstaining from all that He forbade] as He should feared [Obey Him, be thankful to Him, and remember Him always] and die not except in a state of Islām (as Muslims with complete submission to Allāh)." [Sūrah Āl-ʿImrān (3) Ayat 102]
"O mankind! Be dutiful to you Rabb (Allāh) (2), Who created you from a single person (Ādam) and from him (Ādam) He created his wife (Eve), and from them both He created many men and women and fear Allāh through Whom you demand your mutual (rights) and (do not cut the relations of) the wombs (kinship). Surely, Allāh is ever an All-Watcher over you." [Sūrah al-Nisāʾ (4) Ayat 1]
"O you who believe! Keep your duty to Allāh and fear Him, and speak (always) the truth. He will direct you to do righteous good deeds and will forgive you your sins. And whosoever obeys Allāh and His Messenger has indeed achieved a great success." [Sūrah al-Aḥzāb (33) Ayat 70-71]
It proceeds then: That the most truthful speech is that of Allāh's Book (the Qurʾān) and that the best of guidance is that of Muḥammad (ṣalla Allāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam). The worst of evils are innovation (foreign to the true teachings of Islām). Every innovated matter (in religion) is a Bidʿah; every Bidʿah is a Dʿalálah (misguidance), and every Dʿalálah is in the Fire of Hell. The Qurʾān is the Word of Allāh. The Tafsīr (Exegesis) of the meaning of the Noble Ayat (verses) of the Qurʾān is critical to the understanding of Islām as a whole. The Qurʾān is explained by the Qurʾān itself (3) and by the Sunnah (4) of the Prophet (ṣalla Allāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam). The Salaf (5) not only transmitted the explanation of the Qurʾān, but laid down the foundations for Ijitihaad (6) and thus their way is the best and most reliable way of Tafsīr. Philosophical and scholastic opinions dealing with the Word of Allāh produce confusion, alterations in the meaning of the texts and thus lead astray. The Muslim is called to follow the path of those who gained Allāh's Pleasure. They are the Salaf, may Allāh make us follow their path in all matters of Islām.
Considering the above, I have decided to bring closer the Salaf's Tafsīr in separate publications starting with the Tafsīr of Part Thirty of the Noble Qurʾān. This is the second issue and it deals with the Tafsīr of Sūrah Nāziʿāt. I hope that this approach will be simple enough so that it will, Inshaa' Allāh, benefit a board sector of the Muslim Ummah (Nation). I ask Allāh to accept this effort and make it beneficial for all those who read it and (or) distribute it.
The Tafsīr of Sūrah an-Nabāʾ (7)
1 - "What are they asking (one another)?"
2 - "About the Great News."
The disbelievers question the occurrence of the Day of Reckoning. Allāh (subhānahu wa taʿālá (8)) describes this Day as the one that brings Great News. Ibn Kathīr (The eminent scholar of Tafsīr) said that most likely this News refers to the Resurrection after death, based upon the fact that Allāh (subhānahu wa taʿālá) says about it in the next āyah (verse):
3 - "About which they are in disagreement."
Mankind is divided to believers and disbelievers regarding the occurrence of this Day. Allāh (subhānahu wa taʿālá) warns those who deny it, saying:
4 - "Nay, they will come to know!"
5 - "Nay, again, they will come to know!"
An emphasised and a confirmed warning for those who deny this Day that they will certainly come to know that the Day of Resurrection is true. Allāh shows His abilities to produce the Signs of this Day and He tells about its magnitude in the following verses so that the people contemplate and realise that Allāh, Who is able to bring about these Signs, is All-Able to bring life to the Dead as well as Resurrection. Allāh (subhānahu wa taʿālá) tells mankind about many aspects of His Abīlity and Power to create what He wishes. For those who under-estimate Allāh and His Greatness, there is a reminder, and for those who believe, there is an affirmation:
6 - "Have We (9) not made the earth as a bed?"
7 - "And the mountains as pegs?"
To provide cohesiveness and stability to the earth. Modern scientific discoveries found that these pegs are driven into the ground like pegs used to anchor a tent.
8 - "And We have created you in pairs."
Males and females, tall and short, good and bad etc. Males and females lawfully enjoy each other (through marriage) and have children. This enjoyment is physical as well as emotional. it provides mercy and morally abiding friendship. Allāh (subhānahu wa taʿālá) says in other Ayah in the Qurʾān:
"And among His signs is this, that He created for you wives from among yourselves that you may find repose in them and He has put between them affection and mercy. Verily, in that are indeed Signs for a people who reflect." [Sūrah al-Rūm (30) Ayat 21]
9 - "And have made your sleep as a thing for rest."
Sleep discontinues the motion at the end of the day. A resting time for human efforts seeking sustenance. This is just one other Mercy of Allāh,
10 - "And have made the night as a covering (through its darkness)."
The darkness covers you just as your garment covers your body. The "covering" night produces a quiet environment to reside in and to become still.
11 - "And have made the day for livelihood."
Allāh produced shining light in it (from the Sun) so that people can manage their affairs and function to produce their livelihood which He (subhānahu wa taʿālá) has already ordained for each individual in appropriate measures. In another Ayah, Allāh says:
"It is out of His Mercy that He has put for you night and day, that you may rest therein (i.e. during the night) and that you may seek of His Bounty (i.e. during the day), and in order that you may be grateful." [Sūrah al-Qasas (28) Ayat 73]
Who, other than the Creator of Day and Night can balance their respective course of time?
"Say (O Muḥammad (ṣalla Allāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam)): Tell me! If Allāh made night continuous for you till the Day of Resurrection, who is a god besides Allāh who bring you light? Will you not then hear?" [Sūrah al-Qasas (28) Ayat 71]
"Say (O Muḥammad (ṣalla Allāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam)): Tell me! If Allāh made day continuous for you till the Day of Resurrection who is a god besides Allāh who could bring you night wherein you rest? Will you then not see?" [Sūrah al-Qasas (28) Ayat 72]
[Sūrah al-Qasas (28) Ayat 72]
12 - "And We have built above you seven strong (heavens)."
Seven, wide, high, firmly constructed, beautifully constructed, beautifully built without supporting columns. Beautified with stars, planets, the sun and the moon. The sun as a shining lamp:
13 - "And have made (therein) a Shining Lamp."
The "Lamp" illuminates the whole universe to provide light as well as heat allowing growth, energy, etc.
14 - "And We have sent down from the rainy clouds abundant water."
Allāh beautifully explains in another Ayah:
"Allāh is He Who sends the winds, so they raise clouds and spread them along the sky as He wills, and then breaks them into fragments until you see rain drops come forth from their midst! Then when He has made them fall on whom of His slaves as He wills, lo! They rejoice!" [Sūrah al-Rūm (30) Ayat 48]
The benefits of water are remarkable:
15 - "That We may produce therewith corn and vegetations."
Eaten by man and animals and used in various useful means.
16 - "And gardens of thick growth."
With different fruits, fragrance, tastes, smells produced in one single piece of land! This is similar to another Ayah where Allāh (subhānahu wa taʿālá) says:
"And in the earth are neighbouring tracts and gardens of vines, and fields sown with corn, and palm trees, growing out two or three from a single stem root, or otherwise (one stem root for every palm), watered with the same water, yet some of them We make more excellent than others to eat. Verily in these things are Ayat (signs, proofs, evidence, lessons) for the people who understand." [Sūrah al-Raʿd (13) Ayat 4]
All of the above Favours of Allāh are so vivid. How could the disbelievers make use of all of these bounties and yet deny the Resurrection? Then comes the realities: O! man don't forget that there is an appointed term for everything:
17 - "Verily the Day of Decision is a fixed time"
This time does not increase nor decrease nor it is to be postponed, and no one knows its specific occurrence except Allāh (subhānahu wa taʿālá). He says about it:
18 - "The Day when the Trumpet will be blown, and you shall come forth in crowds (groups)."
Each Ummah (nation) will come with its respective Imāms, as Allāh (subhānahu wa taʿālá) says in another Ayah in the Qurʾān:
"(And remember) the Day when We shall call together all human beings with their (respective) Imāms (their prophets, or their Holy Books like the Qurʾān, the Torah, the Gospel, or their Records of good and bad deeds, etc.)" [Sūrah al-Isra' (17) Ayat 71]
Imam Bukharī relates that Abū Hurayrah (raḍī Allāhu ʿanhū) said that the Prophet (ṣalla Allāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said: "Between the two sounds of the trumpet there will be Forty." Somebody asked Abū Hurayrah, "Forty days?" But he refused to reply. Then he asked, "Forty Months?" He refused to reply. Abū Hurayrah added "Then (after this period) Allāh will send water from the sky and then the dead bodies will grow like vegetation grows, there is nothing of the human body that does not decay except one bone; that is the little bone at the end of the coccyx of which the human body will be recreated on the Day of Resurrection." (10)
19 - "And the heaven shall be opened, and it will become as gates."
Allowing the passage of descending angels.
20 - "And the mountains shall be moved away from their places and they will be as if they were a mirage."
This is similar to the saying of Allāh (subhānahu wa taʿālá) in another Ayah of the Qurʾān:
"And you will see the mountains and think them solid, but they shall pass away as the passing away of the clouds. The Work of Allāh, Who Perfected all things, verily! He is All-Acquainted with what you do." [Sūrah an-Naml (27) Ayat 88]
"And they ask you concerning the mountains, say: My Rabb will blast them and scatter them as particles of dust..." [Sūrah Ta-Ha (20) Ayat 105]
"And the day We shall cause the mountains to pass away (like clouds of dust)! and you will see the earth as a leveled plain, and we shall gather them all together so as to leave not one of them behind." [Sūrah al-Kahf (18) Ayat 47]
People think when they see the mountains that it amounts to something, yet it is nothing, and it will completely vanish without any remains.
21 - "Truly Hell is a place of ambush,"
22 - "A dwelling place for at-Tagh'een:"
At-Tagheen: Those who transgress the boundary limits set by Allāh like the Kuffar (disbelievers), Mushriks (worshipping other than Allāh), hypocrites, sinners, criminals, etc.
23 - "They will abide therein Ahqaba."
Ahqaba (pl. Huqq'b) (i.e. for ages): One after the other forever as related by Qutadah, Al-Ḥasan al-Bʿasri and other prominent scholars of the Salaf. Most of them mentioned that each Huqq'b is eighty (80) years.
24 - "Nothing cool shall they taste therein, nor any drink."
No cooling their hearts shall they find in Hell, nor a good drink to quit their thirst. That is why Allāh (subhānahu wa taʿālá) says:
25 - "Except boiling water, and dirty wound discharges (i.e. pus, etc.)"
The dark fluid is a festering water from the sweat, tears and wounds of the people of Hell.
26 - "An exact recompense (according to their evil crimes)."
Allāh is All-Just. His punishment is All-Just. They will be punished because:
27 - "For verily, they used not to look for a reckoning."
They did not believe that everything will return to Allāh and, therefore, they did not prepare for this Day.
28 - "But they belied our Ayaat completely."
The proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations together with the guidance shown to them by Allāh's Messengers, were faced with rejection and denial.
29 - "And all things We have recorded in a BOOK."
Allāh (subhānahu wa taʿālá) had known all the deeds of His slaves and had written them all in a BOOK long before mankind was created. He decreed reward and punishment. There is no sin more grave than Shirk (setting up rivals with Allāh in worship). Those who commit Shirk have an ill opinion about Allāh. Justly, they shall receive an eternal punishment and that is Hell.
30 - "So taste you (the results of your evil actions): No increase shall We give you except in Torment."
It will be said to the people of Hell: taste what you are suffering. We shall not grant you an increase except similar torment and so it shall progressively multiply. It is related that ʿAbdullāh Ibn ʿUmar, may Allāh be pleased with him, said: "Allāh did not bring down on the people of fire an Ayah more severe than this Ayah." He said they will be forever in a state of progressive increase in torment, and Allāh is All-Just.
What about those who fear Allāh and accept the Message of Tawḥīd?
Allāh (subhānahu wa taʿālá) describes in the following Ayat some of their conditions:
31 - "Verily for the Mut'taqeen there will be success (Paradise)."
The Mut'taqeen are those pious and righteous persons who fear Allāh, worship none except Him (subhānahu wa taʿālá) and do righteous deeds. They will end up in:
32 - "Gardens and grapeyards."
33 - "And young full-breasted (mature) maidens of equal age."
There are young virgin women whose breasts are firm (steady on their chests) and not loose as the breasts of women of this life.
34 - "And a full cup (of wine)."
Akrama (a great scholar of Tafsīr) said that the wine of Paradise is clear. The resemblance to the wine is only in name. It does not cause any loss of conscious nor stomach pain and its taste and smell are good, unlike the wine of this life. In another āyah in the Qurʾān, Allāh (subhānahu wa taʿālá) says:
"Round them will be passed a cup of pure wine; White, delicious to the drinkers, Neither will they have Ghoul (any kind of hurt, abdominal pain, headache, a sin, etc.) from that, nor will they suffer intoxication therefrom." [Sūrah al-Ṣāffāt (37) Ayat 45]
There are rivers of this kind of wine in Paradise:
"Rivers of wine delicious to those who drink." [Sūrah Muḥammad (47) Ayat 15]
The wine of this world is prohibited because of its known evil effects on the individuals as well as the society. The Prophet (ṣalla Allāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said: "He who drinks wine in this world would be deprived of it in the Hereafter, unless he repents." (11)
35 - "No Falsehood shall they hear therein, nor lying."
It is the place of peace, nothing in it is deficient. As Allāh (subhānahu wa taʿālá) says in the another Ayah:
"No vain speaking will they hear therein, nor any sinful speech (like backbiting, etc.), but only the saying of Salām! Salām! (Greeting with peace)." [Sūrah al-Wāqiʿah (56) Ayat 25-26]
All of these Favours are from Allāh:
36 - "A Reward from your Rabb, a Sufficient Gift."
37 - "(From) the Rabb of the Heavens and the Earth, and whatsoever is in between them, the Most Beneficient. None can dare to speak with Him (on the Day of Resurrection, except with His leave)."
Allāh (subhānahu wa taʿālá) tells us about His Greatness and Majesty and that He is the Rabb of the Heavens and the Earth and all that is between them. That He is the Most Beneficient whose Mercy encompasses everything. No one has the right or power to argue with Alāh about anything. He is above all creation. He may permit those who plead in truth and righteousness but only after His permission is granted as He (subhānahu wa taʿālá) says:
"Who is He that can intercede with Him except with His permission?" [Sūrah al-Baqarah (2) Ayat 255]
38 -"The Day that the Ruh and the angels will stand forth in rows none shall speak except him whom the Beneficient (Allāh) allows and he will speak what is right."
Ibn Kathīr, May Allāh's Mercy be upon him, mentioned sevens sayings about the meaning of the Ruh (Spirit): a) Jibrīl, b) Special servants of Allāh other than the angels, c) The souls of the children of Ādam standing forth in ranks, d) Special creation of Allāh having the form of the children of Ādam yet they are not angels nor humans but they eat and drink, e) A special great angel, f) The Children of Ādam and g) The Qurʾān.
Ibn Kathīr, supports the opinion that the Spirit may be the children of Ādam. Shaykh Muḥammad Amīn ash-Shanqiti (may Allāh's Mercy be upon him) in his famous book of Tafsīr, known as Aḍwāʾ al-Bayān (12) said that the evidence from the Qurʾān indicates that "the Spirit is the Special Angel Jibrīl." He cites as reference, the āyah about the descending of the angels in the Night of al-Qadar in the month of Ramaḍān. Allāh (subhānahu wa taʿālá) says:
"Therein descend the angels and the Ruh (Jibrīl) by Allāh's Permission with all decrees." [Sūrah al-Qadr (97) Ayat 4]
The Ruh is Ma'toufah i.e. grammatically in conjunction with "the angels" in the above āyah, thus indicating that the Ruh is the Special Angel Jibrīl, and Allāh knows best. May other Mufassir'roon (people of Tafsīr) support the conclusion that the Ruh in the above āyah is Jibrīl. Others limit the Ruh to a Great Special Angel (13). Ibn Jarīr at-Tabari, in his Tafsīr known as Tafsīr at-Tabari (14) said that, "...the meanings mentioned (see above), yet Allāh knows best which one it is. There is no information that specifies that any particular one of these things (mentioned above) is the one which is meant in the āyah (#38, above), and that there is no supportive evidence (i.e. for any particular meaning). Ignorance about this matter is not, therefore, harmful." Allāh knows best.
On the Day of Resurrection, only those whom Allāh permits to speak or intercede will do so. They will speak the truth which is the witnessing of the Tawḥīd of Allāh (subhānahu wa taʿālá): There is no true God who deserves to be worshipped except Allāh (subhānahu wa taʿālá).
39 -"That is the True Day (they denied): so whoever wills, let him take a return to his Rabb."
A straight return to Allāh (subhānahu wa taʿālá) by obeying Him in this worldly life.
40 - "Verily! We have warned you of near Torment, the Day when man will see that (the deeds) which his hands have sent forth and the disbeliever will say: 'Woe to me! Would that I were dust!"
Allāh (subhānahu wa taʿālá) says in other āyah:
"And they will find all that they did, placed before them, and your Rabb treats no one with injustice." [Sūrah al-Kahf (18) Ayat 49]
"On that Day man will be informed what he sent forward (of his evil or good deeds), and what he left behind (of his good or evil traditions)." [Sūrah al-Qiyaamah (75) Ayat 13]
On that Day, the disbeliever wishes that he was mere dust in this worldly life and that he was not even created. This is when he sees the torment that Allāh had prepared for him and when he examines his deeds written and recorded by the angels. It is explained also that he wishes to be a mere dust when Allāh (subhānahu wa taʿālá) judges between the animal creation. There when Allāh (subhānahu wa taʿālá) will make judgement for the hornless sheep against the horned sheep. After which He (subhānahu wa taʿālá) will order the animals to be dust and it changes to dust. When this happens, the disbeliever wishes he was dust (i.e. he was an animal)!
The meaning of this latter explanation was related in a Ḥadīth by the Prophet (ṣalla Allāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam): "The claimants would get their claims on the Day of Resurrection so much so that the hornless sheep would get its claim from the horned sheep." (15)
This Sūrah, the Great News, affirms the Day of Reckoning and provides a beautiful as well as a terrifying illustration for what happens on that Day. These are facts and āyah from Allāh for those who contemplate. May Allāh guide us to re-examine our stand in this life in relation to His decrees and aim to comply with command. Amīn.
Advice: Read the Sūrah with family members, a friend, give a copy of it to someone around you and if you remember the person who compiled the Tafsīr of this Sūrah...don't forget to ask Allāh to forgive him.
The One in need of the Mercy of Allāh....Saleh As-Saleh
1. Salla Allāhu Aleihi Wasalām: The al-Ṣalāh and Salām of Allāh be upon His Prophet Muḥammad (ṣalla Allāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam). The al-Ṣalāh of Allāh upon Prophet Muḥammad (ṣalla Allāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) is His praise of the Prophet to the angels who are close to (but below) Allāh, the Most High, who rose above His ʿArsh (Throne) which is above the seven skies. The angels also praise him (ṣalla Allāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam). The Salām is Allāh's safeguarding of the Prophet (ṣalla Allāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) from deficiencies and any kind of evil. When the Muslims says Salla Allāhu Aleihi Wasalām, he invokes Allāh to grant Praise and Security to the Prophet Muḥammad (ṣalla Allāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam). See Ibn al-Qayyim's Jallā'ul Afhaam Fee Fadlis-Ṣalāti-wa-Salām 'Alā Muḥammadin Kairil 'Anaam, p.128. Published by Dār ibn Kathīr, Damascus, and Maktabat Dār At-Turaath, Al-Madīnah, 1408HJ/1988.
2. Rabb: Allāh is ar-Rabb: He is the One Who gave all things the power to grow, to move and to change, to Whom belongs the Creation and the Commandment, The Master Who has no equal in His Sovereignty, Predominance, and Highness, The One Who Provides and Sustains all that exists.
3. Some Ayat in some Sūrahs (Chapters) are clearly understood in light of other ayat in other parts of the Qurʾān.
4. Sunnah: includes the sayings, explanations, rulings, recommendations, advice, approvals, actions and teachings by the Prophet Muḥammad (ṣalla Allāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) pertaining to all matters of Islām. The Sunnah is an Inspiration from Allāh as stated in the Qurʾān:
"Nor does he (Muḥammad) speak of (his own) desire. It is only an Inspiration that is inspired." Sūrah an-Najm (53) Ayat 3-4
5. Comprises the companions of the Prophet (ṣalla Allāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) and those who follow their path in understanding Islām up to the Day of Resurrection.
6. Ijitihaad: Deducing the meaning of certain texts (or rulings) where there is no clear proof from the Qurʾān and (or) the Sunnah. The essentials of this Islamic science is still based, however, on relevant texts of the Qurʾān and (or) Sunnah.
7. Say it is the Qurʾān that Allāh (subhānahu wa taʿālá) sent down to Muḥammad (ṣalla Allāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) which calls mankind to the believe in the Oneness of Allāh (Tawḥīd) and informs about Death and Resurrection. The disbelievers disputed about Muḥammad (ṣalla Allāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) and the Message that was Revealed to Him. They questioned: What is he reciting? where did he bring this Qurʾān. Some said it is magic, others said it is poetry and some considered it stories from the past! They asked each other many questions, including questions about the Day of Reckoning! Allāh Revealed: "What are they asking (one another)!" - THE GREAT NEWS.
8. subhānahu wa taʿālá: Subhānahu Wa taʿālá, Most Glorified & Most High, He is.
9. One may notice that sometimes Allāh Who is One refers to Himself by We or Us. This is not an indication of different "personalities" or "forms" of Allāh as it is the case in the Trinity concept of the Catholic Church. Allāh (God) is One. The use of We and Us is always associated with verses referring to Allāh's Greatness in His Lordship e.g. Creation, Power, Might, etc... This is very common in the al-ʿArabīc Language. a king issues orders or statements by saying "We" or "Us". The Power and might of any king is imperfect. Allāh Glorification of Himself is Perfect because He is Perfect. In His address to mankind by calling them to direct their worship to Him, Allāh always refers to Himself by I, Me and Myself. All of this is well understood in al-ʿArabīc and also in other Semitic languages. Even in English, there is the "Royal We and Us" as we hear it from statements by members of the Royal Family in England and elsewhere. To Allāh, however, belongs the Best Examples, Names, Attributes, and Actions.
10. Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukharī (English-al-ʿArabīc) V.6, Ḥadīth #457, P.429, Published by Dar al-ʿArabīa, Beirut, Lebanon.
11. Collected by Imam Muslim in his book known as Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim (English Translation by A.H.Siddiqui), V.3, Ḥadīth #4969. See also # 4967.
12. Aḍwāʾ ul Bayān (al-ʿArabīc Text), V.9, P.16 Published by Maktabat Iibn Taymīyyah - Cairo.
13. This has been related to the great Sahabi (companion of the Prophet (ṣalla Allāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam)) Ibn ʿAbbas as in the Tafsīr of al-Baghawī (al-ʿArabīc), V.8, P.317, Published by Daar Tayybah-Riyadh, KSA.
14. Tafsīr at-Tabari, 30/23.
15. Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, V.4, Ḥadīth # 6252, P.1366